(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The parish of the pines; the story of Frank Higgins, the lumberjacks' sky pilot"

Google 



This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 



Google 



A propos de ce livre 

Ccci est unc copic num^rique d'un ouvrage conserve depuis des generations dans les rayonnages d'unc bibliothi^uc avant d'fitrc numdrisd avoc 

pr&aution par Google dans le cadre d'un projet visant ii permettre aux intemautes de d&ouvrir I'ensemble du patrimoine littdraire mondial en 

ligne. 

Ce livre etant relativement ancien, il n'est plus protege par la loi sur les droits d'auteur et appartient ii present au domaine public. L' expression 

"appartenir au domaine public" signifle que le livre en question n'a jamais ^t^ soumis aux droits d'auteur ou que ses droits l^gaux sont arrivds & 

expiration. Les conditions requises pour qu'un livre tombc dans le domaine public peuvent varier d'un pays ii I'autre. Les livres libres de droit sont 

autant de liens avec le pass^. lis sont les t^moins de la richcssc dc notrc histoire, de notre patrimoine culturel et de la connaissance humaine ct sont 

trop souvent difRcilement accessibles au public. 

Les notes de bas de page et autres annotations en maige du texte pr^sentes dans le volume original sont reprises dans ce flchier, comme un souvenir 

du long chemin parcouru par I'ouvrage depuis la maison d'Mition en passant par la bibliothi^ue pour finalement se retrouver entre vos mains. 

Consignes d 'utilisation 

Google est fler de travailler en parienariat avec des biblioth&jues a la num^risaiion des ouvragcs apparienani au domaine public ci de les rendrc 
ainsi accessibles h tous. Ces livres sont en effet la propriety de tons et de toutes et nous sommes tout simplement les gardiens de ce patrimoine. 
D s'agit toutefois d'un projet coflteux. Par cons6juent et en vue de poursuivre la diffusion de ces ressources in^puisables, nous avons pris les 
dispositions n&essaires afin de pr^venir les ^ventuels abus auxquels pourraient se livrcr des sites marchands tiers, notamment en instaurant des 
contraintes techniques relatives aux requfites automatisdes. 
Nous vous demandons ^galement de: 

+ Ne pas utiliser lesfichiers & des fins commerciales Nous avons congu le programme Google Recherche de Livres ^ I'usage des particuliers. 
Nous vous demandons done d'utiliser uniquement ces flchiers ^ des fins personnelles. lis ne sauraient en effet Stre employes dans un 
quelconque but commercial. 

+ Ne pas proc^der & des requites automatisees N'envoyez aucune requite automatisfe quelle qu'elle soit au syst^me Google. Si vous effectuez 
des recherches concemant les logiciels de traduction, la reconnaissance optique de caractferes ou tout autre domaine n&essitant de disposer 
d'importantes quantit^s de texte, n'h^sitez pas ^ nous contacter. Nous encourageons pour la realisation de ce type de travaux I'utilisation des 
ouvrages et documents appartenant au domaine public et serious heureux de vous etre utile. 

+ Ne pas supprimerV attribution Le flligrane Google contenu dans chaque flchier est indispensable pour informer les intemautes de notre projet 
et leur permettre d'accMer h davantage de documents par I'intermediaire du Programme Google Recherche de Livres. Ne le supprimez en 
aucun cas. 

+ Rester dans la Ugaliti Quelle que soit I'utilisation que vous comptez faire des flchiers, n'oubliez pas qu'il est de votre responsabilitd de 
veiller h respecter la loi. Si un ouvrage appartient au domaine public americain, n'en d^duisez pas pour autant qu'il en va de m£me dans 
les autres pays. La dur^e legale des droits d'auteur d'un livre varie d'un pays ^ I'autre. Nous ne sommes done pas en mesure de rdpertorier 
les ouvrages dont I'utilisation est autorisee et ceux dont elle ne Test pas. Ne croyez pas que le simple fait d'afflcher un livre sur Google 
Recherche de Livres signifle que celui-ci pent etre utilise de quelque fa§on que ce soit dans le monde entier. La condamnation h laquelle vous 
vous exposeriez en cas de violation des droits d'auteur pcut £tre s6vtre. 

A propos du service Google Recherche de Livres 

En favorisant la recherche et Facets ^ un nombre croissant de livres disponibles dans de nombreuses langues, dont le frangais, Google souhaite 
contribuer h promouvoir la diversite culturelle gr§ce ^ Google Recherche de Livres. En effet, le Programme Google Recherche de Livres permet 
aux intemautes de decouvrir le patrimoine litteraire mondial, tout en aidant les auteurs et les editeurs ^ eiargir leur public. Vous pouvez effectuer 
des recherches en ligne dans le texte integral de cet ouvrage h I'adresse fhttp: //books .google . coinl 



»i by Google 



»i by Google 



»i by Google 



»i by Google 



»i by Google 



^ 



»i by Google 



The Parish of The Fines 



»i by Google 



by Google 




»i by Google 



»i by Google 



The Parish of The Pines 

The Story of Frank Higginj 
the Lumberjacks' Sk/ Piht 



■ ■ ■ ■■'A^^ 
THOUJS DrnrHrrrLES 



Ntw T»rk Chicago Tarenta 

Fleming H. Revell Company 

London end Edinburgh 



»i by Google 



Copyright, 1911, by 
FLEMING H. REVELL COMPANY 




New York: 158 Fifth Avenua 
Chicago: la; North Wabash Ave. 
Toronto: 15 Richmond Street, W. 
London: 11 Paternoster Squire 
100 Piincet Street 



»i by Google 



BS061 N^ft 



LOVINGLY DEDICATED 

TO m 

PARTNER 



11 

« 

s 



»i by Google 



»i by Google 



THE PARISH OF THE PINES 

" Where the winter'* chill i* deep ind idll. 

Where (ommer dayi ore long. 
Where dghing breeze and bronchei fill 

The air with tob and tong. 
There li» ■ puieh of the L^d 

No wall or itreet confinei : 
There 'waiti the coming of the Lord 

The Pirish of the Pinei. 

" No tower aplifb tu gilded tfon 

Above a hooK of prayer. 
No organ tower or iwaying chtnr 

Mabel iweeieit muiic there. 
For 'tig a vineyard choked with weed* 

And liub with tangled vine* ; 
Yea, much ii lack* and much it need* ^ 

The Parish of the Knei. 

'■ Yet word of God is word of God 
In camp or pulpit told. 
And men of fbrett and of aod 

Await the story old. 
lis time to hew sway the un 
That now the soul con£nn. 
And let ■ little lunshine in 
The pMish of the Knes." 

—Ihuglaj Mtlkch. 



»i by Google 



»i by Google 



Contents 



I. 


Tm LuuBMjACu' Skt Pilot 


II 


n. 


Thi Lijubbijacu 


20 


UI. 


A New Pakuh li Opened 




IV. 


The Hurt of the Loooing DtmiCT 




V. 


"NowWE'uLooom"' 




VI. 


The Jacu Ik Thbii Poun- Houi . 




VII. 


The GoiPHt In the Shacki . 




VIII. 


RiAsm' Matt» .... 


101 


IX. 


Is THI GlIAT WniTI SlLEHd 


106 


X. 


" MUECWLAR CHMITIANmr " . 


ISO 


XI. 


Thi Rmjt Ptci .... 


140 


xn. 


The Cahp-Jumpbei 


■ 4S 


XIII. 


•■ EA.T Money" .... 


■S9 


XIV. 




169 


XV. 


Into the Mootm op Hell . 


'74 


XVI. 


WaTIISI MlNIlTEIEl . . . 

7 


185 



»i by Google 



8 Contents 

XVII. Thb Babueu of Pujudicb . .197 

XVIII. HidciNi' Ijbdtinanti . ■ >■$ 

XIX. The Old Indian Tkeaty . . . 231 1 

XX. LooEwo Abeao .... ajS 



»i by Google 



Illustrations 



His name was Higgins — Frank Hig^as. . . .Frontispieet 

Now the steam-hauler drags its chains of trailing 
sleds. 58 

He who labors in the pine-laden air does not quarrel 
with service if the quality and quantity be 
right 61 

They were loading with steam jammer 72 

Brain is not despised, but brawn is honoured and 
endurance is the ideal of the lumber jack 121 

A misstep from a floating log carries many menaces. 140 

Glorious weather for logging 148 

In the spring they'll make the drive together down 
the river. 209 



»i by Google 



»i by Google 






THE LUMBERJ/iCJ^'-.SKYPlX^-:;'.' 

SOME years ago at a'Chprc^;£[atliermg 
near the Canadian boundary of Min- 
nesota there was among the visitors a 
broad-shouldered, wind-beaten Irishman. He 
was a woodsy chap : he made new acquaint- 
ances easily and with contagious heartiness 
hailed old friends ; carried his two hundred 
pounds happily and laughed with the ripple 
of a trout stream ; and his florid countenance 
gratefully recalled a guide who had once 
made the long trail a desire for me and the 
camp-fire a library of unpublished books. I 
watched the unknown as he went from one 
to the other of his friends. With old and 
new he was equally at ease. Even the difB- 
dent adopted him into the circle of the 
long known. " There's a likable chap I " I 
thought; and so I found him when I met 
him. 

His name was Higg^ns — Frank Higgins. 

" A mmister ? " I asked doubtfully, ■ yet 
wondering. 

" Sort of." 



»i by Google 



.'nvv* The Parish of The Pines 

"."Where do you preach ?." 
"••'.'."'.Wherever I strike.^- gang of men." 
. -^y. To * men only ' ? !'• -..■.■ 
■-'• -.'I-T^otnGn a^ "Ot In.Ti^jrllne. I've preached 
fo"-^9ut.' twelve', thousand men this winter." 
Then'-_.h€ ^dded, -xslii for accuracy's sake: 
" And Id -two-wcfmen who strayed in from a 
homesteader's cabin." 

We met again at the dining table of my 
good friend the doctor. It was a jolly re- 
past. The wild goose was done to perfec- 
tion; and Higgins seasoned it with stories 
of the wild life attendant on a forest pastor- 
ate. The woodsman's narration carried its 
own conviction. He did not make himself a 
hero ; real heroes seldom do. In fact, he did 
not realize that he was doing a big, uncom- 
mon work ; he was only conscious of a big 
need that none save himself was trying to 
supply. The simple fellow apparently de- 
lighted in his task because it demanded his 
full strength and gave his untiring hands a 
chance to help. 

There was another guest without whom 
the narrative would be incomplete. He, 
also, was an Irishman— a minister who had 
lately landed from Ulster. Frank Higgins 
furnished the conversation. The Rev. John 
McCook provided the interruptions with an 



»i by Google 



The Lumberjacks' Sky Pilot 13 

endless array of questions concerning the ' 
Pilot, the lumberjacks and the ways of the 
woods. McCook was blandly simple, amus- 
ingly antiquated — a nineteenth century par- 
son straying in the present, 

" Now this happened in the town of Ten- 
strike " continued Higgins. 

"Tenstrike?" The question came from 
McCook. "A correct name or a nickname, 
Mr. Higgins?" 

"The map name. Pins all down, a clean 
board," explained the woodsman. 

" Ah, exactly 1 A clean town, I presume." 

" Not on your life I A dirty town in those 
days. Saloons aplenty — and all that goes 
with them. But as I was saying, this hap- 
pened in the town of Tenstrike. The boys 
were blowing their stakes in the spring of 
the " 

" Blowing their stakes I " ejaculated Mc- 
Cook. "What a surprising terml Pray, 
what does it mean ? " 

" Spending their money — their earnings — 
their wages," said Mr. Higgins patiently. 
" They were breaking the drought and " 

" Haxi it been a dry season ? " asked the 
innocent newcomer. 

" Yes, it's always dry away from the 
saloons, unless a bootlegger visits the camp." 



»i by Google 



14 The Parish of The Pines 

" A bootlegger I What is he ? And how 
can he relieve a drought ? " 

" He's a fellow who carries whiskey 
around, a sort of human grog-shop, a saloon 
flea that's hard to put your thumb on. I 
knew that old man Wilson was in the saloons 
and started to " 

" Was Mr. Wilson a parishioner of youis 7 " 
questioned the interrupter. 

" Sure I All the boys are." 

" Pardon me, Mr. Higgins. I understood 
you to say that Mr. Wilson was an old man." 

" Right you are 1 He was an old boy ; and 
I knew he ought to send his money home 
to his wife and babies instead of feeding 
the gamblers and the saloon meiL Wilson 
didn't earn much. He was the road-monkey 
on the main stem and needed every " 

" Road-monkey 1 What? Main stem! 
That sounds rather — well — ah — arborial 
May I — er — inquire " 

The Sky Pilot looked curiously at the im- 
ported minister. " The road-monkey," said 
he, patiently, "is one who keeps the ice roads 
so clean that no foreign substance will im' 
pede the progress of the logging sleds." 

I wondered if this allusion could have a 
double meaning ; but the speaker's face was 
serious. 



»i by Google 



The Lumberjacks' Sky Pilot 15 

" The main stem," he went on, " is the prin- 
dpal log^ng road leading to the landing." 

It was perfectly plain. 

" The landing is the place where they un< 
toad the logs, I presume ? " McCook helped. 

*' Correct I Now you're logging ! " heartily 
commeuded the Pilot " Well, anyhow, I 
hunted high and low for Wilson. And at 
last I found him in the snake room. He was 
dead drunk." 

" Snake room I " gasped McCook. " Snake 
room, you say 7 Did the town liave a — a — a 
menagerie ? " 

" Well, yes ! Ha, ha, ha I " laughed Hig- 
gins, joining the generous outburst of pent 
up mirth. " A menagerie ? Sure thing I A 
visionary menagerie. But it was real enough 
to satisfy the man seeing the sights. It's the 
place where they throw the drunks to sleep 
off the effects of the liquor and knock-out 
drops. Well," he resumed, "I carried Wil- 
son to a room in the hotel, put him to bed 
and went through his pockets. They were 
empty. The runners, by Jove, had rolled 
him I " 

" Had the man been caught in machinery ? 
Was he hurt ? " anxiously inquired McCook, 
showing his interest by hitching his chair 
closer. 



»i by Google 



t6 The Parish of The Pines 

"Yes — the machinery of the devil. We 
call it rolling a man when the pickpockets go 
through his clothes," 

" Continue your story, Mr. Higgins. 1 
understand. Really I am far too deeply 
interested to delay it" 

" 1 was thinking of Wilson's poor family. 
He was returning to them, you see, without 
a cent, after a winter's work. After a winter's 
work! i took off his big boots. And out 
of them rolled one hundred and fifty dollars 
in bills I In the hurry, you see, the — well — 
the vampires hadn't tapped his safety de- 
posit So I had one hundred and fifty dollars 
to mail to Wilson's family. And that sure 
did please me ! " 

"With Mr. Wilson's permission?" ques- 
tioned Mr. McCook. 

" Permission I " cried the Sky Pilot " Not 
much I " he added as he passed bis plate for 
another helping of the wild goose. "Be- 
fore Wilson woke up the money was nearly 
home." 

" A good story I A real good story I " 
said the interrupter. " And now, Mr. Hig- 
gins," he drawled, importantly, " what moral 
do you draw from the incident?" 

Higgins looked hard at the Man of Many 
Questions. He was puzzled. Then a light 



»i by Google 



The Lumberjacks' Sky Pilot 17 

dawned on him. "That happened about 
three years ago," said he. " I've been pretty 
busy ever since. And I haven't had time 
\o draw the moral yet I felt so satisfied over 
drawing the one hundred and fifty dollars 
from the boots and sending it to Wilson's 
family that the drawing of the moral didn't 
trouble me." 

The Reverend Mr. McCook sighed. It 
was evident that he regarded the Reverend 
Frank Higgins as too easily satisfied — an 
inconclusive preacher. But down the state, 
poor Mrs. Wilson and the children thought 
of Higgins as a big brother. And if you 
were to ask old man Wilson, he would tell 
you : " Higgins is a dead sure fine minister 
— ^the best ever, by God ! " 

When the Reverend Frank Higgins began 
his work among the forest Ishmaelites, no 
religious society had entered the camps with 
the gospel of Hope. The Catholic Church, 
then, as now, provided hospitals for the sick 
and injured campmen ; but the spiritual pos- 
sibilities of the lumberjacks received litUe 
consideration and far less attention. To-day 
the Presbyterian Church alone has organized 
missions among the lumber camps of the 
United States. To tell the story of the log- 



»i by Google 



1 8 The Parish of The Pines 

ging camp mission and leave Frank Higgins 
out of that story would be preposterous. 
Higgins first saw the promise of the held. 
It was he who responded. It was he who in 
fact strove for possession. With him the 
mission began; and under him it has pro- 
gressed, in spite of discouragements and for 
many years a scandalously inadequate sup- 
port The tide the campmen have conferred 
on him is one of affection. It means much 
to them. It means much to Higgins. They 
call him " The Lumberjacks' Sky Pilot" 
And if you could hear his forest parishioners 
speak the name you would realize that his 
ordination is threefold : it is of God, surely ; it 
is by the presbytery and by the lumberJEicks. 
He is a big Irish Canadian — a great, big, 
warm, eloquent fellow, fuH of love and power 
and devotion. The pines are his parish. He 
found his own parish : and he suffices it. He 
has transformed the life of the pineries. Much 
of what follows used to be ; and it has ceased 
to be — the worst of it — solely because of Hig- 
gins, whose labour has as much to do with 
the life of the logger as the latest mechanical 
invention. Consequently nothing can now 
truly be written of the logging of these parts 
which does not take his trem^idous and in- 
spiringly devoted service into account 



»i by Google 



The LumbeTJacks' Sky Pilot 19 

But this is not a biography of Frank 
Higgias. That must be written later — when 
the naagnitude of his influence upon the life 
he touches can be gauged if he but justifies 
the promise and the possibilities of it, as he 
surely will. And when the story of his 
achievement is written, it will be a big story 
—big in manhood and unselfishness and suc- 
cess in labour even as the world understands 
success. 



»i by Google 



THE LUMBERJACKS 

OUT of the ramshackle coaches of the 
logging train, as from a released 
stream, poured a horde of macki- 
nawed men — big, roaring, lusty fellows. They 
were clear-eyed, like the northern sun ; they 
were supple like the wind-resisting pines. 
Isolation marked their weather-scarred faces, 
the swing of the trackless freedom dominated 
the lithe bodies and the full volumed voices 
told of the wilderness where men fear neither 
eavesdroppers nor the enlargements of cal- 
umny. 

" Hello, Peavey t " cried a saloon " toot," 
as he rushed forward, grasping heartily the 
hand of the leader. " Down river again ? 
Back to God's country, where a man can 
have what he wants I " 

Genial, affable, ingratiating, was the run- 
ner for the saloons. He was well dressed ; 
he was as clean as water could make him, 
and his hand had a brotherly warmth that 
spoke the welcome shining in his face. In 
contrast, the lumberjacks needed the atten- 



»i by Google 



The Lumberjacks 21 

tion of tailor and barber, not to mention the 
transfomung virtues of soap and water. 
They were returning from theNorthem lum- 
ber camps where they had spent the winter 
in the arduous task of felling the forest. 
The privations of the past months were now 
forgotten. Civilization's horn of plenty in- 
vited indulgence. The unattainable in the 
forest could here be procured ; and the jacks 
bad the mighty wherewithal. Like the 
sands of the desert, long unkissed by the 
slacking rain, they thirsted — with a thirst 
that had grown because compelled to virtue 
through absence of vice. 

Now for the deluge I 

"Bring the bunch over I" continued the 
runner, as he mixed unreservedly with the 
soiled and torn woodsmen. "Good Gawd, 
be sociable I Glad to see you again I A 
devil of a winter you've had I Snow deep I 
You were in the ScuUway Camps, eh? 
Scullway is a damned rascal to work for. 
. . . What? A fine fellow? Oh, sure I 
You're right I I was thinking of another 
Scullway — a red-headed chap with full 
beard. My mistake. Well, ha, ha! — the 
drinks are on me." He was affable to a de- 
gree worthy of a better cause. 

" Hit the trail for the irrigating ditch," 



»i by Google 



22 The Parish of The Pines 

called out Peavey. " Huny up, boys, or this 
dry bunch'U sure btun 'fore the corks are 
pulled." 

The agent gladly led the crew to a rough, 
boarded building, on which a fantastic sign 
proclaimed to all who came and went that 
this was " Spider's Place." 

Into the web the flies noisily crowded. 

As I read the sign a line from an old book 
came to mind: "Surely in vain the net is 
spread in the sight of any bird." Evidently 
this ornithological proverb had no anthropo- 
logical application. 

I was waiting for a train, impatient over 
the delay, when this scene introduced me 
to the lumberjacks of northern Minnesota. 
Prior to this I had known little of the woods- 
men ; DOW their physical msmhood awakened 
my interest and the ease with which they 
were led into temptation appealed for a 
remedy. I turned from the view of " Spider's 
Place," where the picturesque division of the 
forest army was opening its furlough, and 
saw that one of the woodsmen had not fol- 
lowed his companions. 

" Not as dry as the rest of the boys ? " I 
remarked to him. 

" No," he replied. " I've got a homestead 



»i by Google 



The Lumbeijacks 23 

up in Itasca. I can't afford to blow my stake. 

1 need it for improvements." 

" Can the others afiEord to blow theirs ?" 

" See here, pardner," he said, kindly, and 
with conviction; "you don't know these 
fellows, so don't blame them." 

I admitted that their way of life was new 
tome. 

"We've been in the timber all winter, 
workin' hard. The shanties we've lived in 
you wouldn't be willin' to keep a dog in. 
We've had no comfort, no ease, like other 
human beings. And now we''re back with 
money to buy what we want. But there isn't 
a place to welcome us except the saloons and 
such. Is there ? " 

I could think of none. 

" Is there t " the jack insisted. 

The rough-garbed philosopher looked 
for an answer. I felt strangely vacant of 
thought or theory. " I don't know. You 
see, I am a stranger here," I ventured, in ex- 
planation. 

" But you know it's true, anyway. The 
boys are human, and they go where they're 
welcome." 

"You are evidently different from your 
companions," I suggested. 

" Maybe. My mother tried to make a man 



»i by Google 



24 The Parish of The Pines 

of me. . . . She's dead now. . . . 
And I'm tryin' to help her job along. That's 
one ol the reasons why I don't drink." 

Again a line h'om an old book came to 
mind : " Being dead, yet speaketh." 

My train finally arrived and I hastened 
away. A closer acquaintance, later gained, 
enables me to see the hideous picture pre- 
sented that night in " Spider's Place " : the 
drinking, lusting, fighting, gambling, with 
the mad accompaniment of laughter and 
curses, the wild brutality of the veteran sin- 
ners and the forced hilarity of young, faltering 
prodigals. The image of God was sunk to 
the level of the low brute. Possibly the 
angels wept at the sight But Spider and 
his ilk laughed as they counted the coin and 
opened another botde to toast a successful 
day. 

Stately and green is the forest of the North 
Star State. It extends from the Big-Sea 
Water of Lake Superior to the fertile silt of 
the Red River Valley. Two himdred miles is 
the width ; two hundred miles or more is the 
length. Masts of spruce, straight and lance- 
like, raise their giant arms through the shroud 
of snow. Dark faced pines silhouette the 
distant stretches ; the green capped Norways 



»i by Google 



The Lumberjacks 25 

lonn a bed for the azure sky, while here and 
there a solitary oak puts forth its powerful 
arms and presses back the intruding forest. 
This is the Minnesota pinery, green in the 
days of June, green in the blasts of December 
^-evergreen since the mora af_creation when 
God gave it the colour of rest Dreamland 1 
Fairy-land ! The place where wishes crystal- 
lize and the spirit of the dumb man sings to 
the orchestral accompaniment of the wind in 
the branching pine. But iron, riven from 
other hills, destroys this Eden, and the glisten- 
ing az introduces the tragedy of the trees and 
the still deeper tragedy of the lumberjacks. 
Hundreds of camps mar the beautiful region 
with their rude shacks and temporary shelters, 
their hideousness being intensified, if that be 
possible, by the surrounding battlements of 
shimmering green. In the Minnesota forests 
approximately twenty thousand men are 
employed in despoiling the solitudes — twenty 
thousand strong, powerful fellows hardened 
by toil, toughened by the fierce breath of cruel 
winter, daring, fearless, physically fit for the 
mightiest tasks of an empire : twenty thousand 
men isolated, lonely, untouched by the aids 
and restraints of civilization, housed in rough 
bunk-shacks, far from home, without religion 
and without God. 



»i by Google 



26 The Parish of The Pines 

They are there to remove the growth of 
ages so that the farms and cities may have 
protection and comfort The primeval forest 
has been invaded : this is the day of its 
defeat The zero air resounds with the ring 
of the biting az, the harsh tearing of saws, the 
strange, lurid oaths of the teamsters and the 
sullen sound of falling trees. The lumberjacks 
are the nomads of the West — farm-hands 
and railroad constructionists in summer, 
woodsmen in winter, tieless to place or kind, 
homeless and taxless. A few years ago 
Michigan claimed them for her own, later 
their habitat was the forest of Wisconsin : 
now their rendezvous is the green wood 
of Minnesota. In all the country there is 
scarcely a more interesting group of men — 
interesting because prodigal and wayward in 
life and habit, while their pine-sheltered home 
appeals to every leaf-loving soul. 

The typical lumberjack is a man of large 
heart and of little will to resist the temptation 
to enjoyment of any sort. He has lost the 
power to check his evil desires — and then, 
you see, it is so easy to yield to the vultures 
who make sin convenient and righteousness 
hard. The saloon is alluringly near; the 
church and bethel are slow to approach. 
The harpies of vice wait at the wayside and 



»i by Google 



The Lumberjacks 27 

the sirens sing a soothing invitation to every 
jMissing traveller. One of my first woods 
acquaintances was old man Bradley. He was 
physically as tough as whaJebone and as 
elastic as a well-trained athlete, unmarried, 
without a care, and just closing his forty- 
ninth winter in the woods. His long, swing- 
ing stride, somewhat resembling the gait of 
the sailor, made it difficult for my civilized 
legs to keep pace with him as we walked 
towards the camp. 

" So this is your forty-ninth winter in the 
camps 1 " 1 said, admiringly, as I looked at 
his well-knit body. 

" My forty-ninth. I'm sixty-five years old ; 
and I know loggin' from the stump as well as 
by steam hauler." 

" What have you to show for all those years 
of hard work?" 

He smilingly thrust his hands into his 
pockets and turned them wrong side out 
"That's my pile." 

We both looked at the lonely jack-knife — 
and I noticed that one blade was broken. " Is 
that all you have? " 

" Thai's all." The smile was gone. " And 
I'd have traded that for a drink of whiskey 
many a time, only " 

I waited. 



»i by Google 



28 The Parish of The Pines 

"Wall," he explained, "my teeth are 
gettin' poor and I need this knife f cut my 
tobacco." 

The Bradleys are legion. 

Into the heart of the wooded lands the 
railroads push their iron arms; and the 
villages follow the railroads. The saloons 
are the first places of business and the gatn- 
bling dens accompany them. One new town 
had between forty and hfty saloons and 
twenty gambling dens ; yet the place had a 
population of only fifteen hundred. Another 
village, beautifully situated at the junction of 
two rivers, had less than two hundred in- 
habitants. But six saloons — and all other 
purveyors of iniquity — did a thriving busi- 
ness. The patronage was from the camps ; 
the foresters were the source of profit 

Sunday, the Christian's day of rest and 
gladness, is still in many places the harvest- 
day of iniquity. Released from toil, the men 
pour into the towns, where whiskey, wheel 
and women snatch their earnings, reduce 
them to insensibility, to emptiness, and, in 
some cases, to death. Like the withered 
leaves of autumn before the eddying wind, 
the wielders of az and cant-hook fall and 
perish. 



»i by Google 



The Lumberjacks 29 

" One night to blow the stake I " Then 
regrets — for a moment ; and then back to toil 
in the solitudes. 

Jack is not aJways a willing victim ; so the 
knock-out drops are secretly administered and 
his pockets emptied while he lies unconscious 
in the " snake room." Later, he may com- 
plain of such drastic measures; he may suggest 
mildly that " they did not give me a run for 
my money." But he is helpless against the 
entrenched enemies ; he is told to " go up 
river," or he is hustled unfeelingly out of town. 

" He's only a lumberjack ; he works better 
when he's all in." 

That is the wealth of sympathy the 
Ishmaelite receives. 

Billy the Filer drew his wages and started 
happily for home. Swinging his legs from 
the rear of the tote wagon, and whistling a 
boyhood tune, he thought of the pleasure in 
store for him when he entered the old town. 
In imagination he saw the old home and 
greeted the old folks. Billy was rich, having 
spent none of his winter earnings. The tote 
road ended in the village street ; and a saloon 
runner, waiting for such as Billy, invited him 
to warmth and shelter in a neeu-'by saloon. 
Here Billy's splendid intentions disappeared 
in the flow of inflaming liquors. 



»i by Google 



30 The Parish of The Pines 

" How long have you been in the woods 
this time, Billy ? " asked the runner. 

" The whole season ; and the stuff's all here." 
Billy drunkenly patted his pocket where his 
precious wages were tucked away. " Give 
me another hot one. Make it strong." 

The runner winked at the bartender ; and 
while the drink-mixer added the knock-out 
drops, he engaged the lumberjack in conver- 
sation. In a few minutes, very naturally, 
Billy was unconscious. They dragged him 
into the rear room, removed his money and 
left him to sleep off the effects of the drug 
while they watched for other victims. Billy 
was " dead broke." He went back to the 
camps to dream of the old town, the old home, 
the old folks — and to hope for better luck 
next time. 

No place welcomes the lumberjack except 
the one he should avoid. The churches in 
the lumber districts are too weak to meet the 
large demands. There are no bethels except 
in the large cities. Reading rooms and the 
Y. M. C. A. are few. Jack is without a 
place of refuge behind whose doors he can 
find companionship and safety. Because of 
his weakness, because the balm of sympathy 
comes to him limitedly, the lumberjack is a 



»i by Google 



The Lumberjacks 31 

prey for the strong. He condenses all to a 
dark philosophy in which the dawn of hope 
is long delayed : civilization is a place of un- 
bridled lif^nse where the law favours the 
spoiler; humanity is as cold as the frozen 
streams of his winter retreat ; the church has 
forgotten, or never cared for, the prodigal, 
while it pampers the souls of its members ; 
Christ is only a word of convenient profan- 
ity and God is dead. In his wretchedness, 
he labours for the keepers of the gates of 
death and is satisfied if by the sweat of his 
brow he can win an hour of forgetfulness in 
the riot of appetites and the wild hilarity of 
the forbidden. 

And this is Truth. It is no sentimental 
religiosity, but cold and terrible Fact 

Even in a dark picture, however, there 
must be light In the neglected sons of the 
lumber camps the hopeful ray is plainly 
seen : for the hearts of the jacks are as rich 
in charity as their lives are impoverished 
with sin. Their sympathies are easily 
touched and their liberality shames many 
a cleaner man. It is through the open free- 
dom of their generous natures that the ref- 
ormation, long delayed, must find its port of 
entrance. The remedy to work the change 
is the cleansing, will-hardening gospel of the 



»i by Google 



32 The Parish of The Pines 

Man of Nazareth. When they shall learn 
to know Him, the friend of publicans and 
sinners, the foresters will bring forth the 
fruits of righteousness — virtue, temperance, 
godliness, against which there is no law. 

The harvest is beginning : Frank Higgins, 
the Sky Pilot, and his associates are among 
the lumberjacks. 



by Google 



in 

A NEW PARISH IS OPENED 

AS I have said before, nothing can be 
written of the Minnesota pineries that 
does not include Frank Higgins. He 
goes everywhere ; he touches everybody — 
not wholly in the slang sense of the word : be- 
cause in the way of gaining contributions for 
his work he has been all his life a poor tool. 
When it comes to giving money for value 
received in the improvement of a soul, or 
for some temporary alleviation of distress, 
whether sin has caused the misery or not, 
he is a prodigal prince ; but when it comes to 
asking for a dollar to help his goodness along 
he looks and bears himself for all the world 
like an amateur thief. However, his influence 
has been everywhere : and in these days — 
after a fight of seventeen years — his influence 
is everywhere admitted. In the beginning 
it was not admitted : Higgins was ridiculed 
and cursed : but he is neither laughed at nor 
anathematized any longer : he is respected. 
In short, he has " made good." 
33 



»i by Google 



34 The Parish of The Pines 

From Canada Higgins went to Bamum, 
Minnesota, as a lay preacher. He did not 
know why. 

" I could not understand," said he, years 
afterwards, " why I should go to Baraum. 
Had I been permitted, I should have chosen 
a fanning community, rather tiian a logging 
village. There seemed no chance to ad- 
vance ; and I had an eye on big churches, 
in those days. Now I look back and see a 
kindly providence leading. I am glad I 
went there ; for Martin Cain, a logging con- 
tractor, attended my church, and his interest 
in lumbering introduced me to the camps 
and my future work." 

Shortly after his arrival at Bamum, Hig- 
gins went with several friends across country 
to Kettle River, where the men, who, in the 
parlance of the camps, are called river pigs, 
were at work. It was spring. The ice- 
locked lakes and rivers felt its call, and the 
logs that had covered the ice were floating 
with the current on their southward journey. 
The men were helping the rear of the drive 
over the shallows — " sackin'," they called 
it — ^and in their labours they leaped from log 
to log, with the graceful agility of squirrels, 
or rode the clumsy timbers where they would. 
It seemed an easy thing to do ; but none 



»i by Google 



A New Parish is Opened 35 

save a master can keep his place on the un- 
steady rolling steeds. 

In a bend of the stream was tied the float- 
ing nannigan, with its burden of camp 
equipment, bunks, cooking utensils and pro- 
visions; and near it, on the grassy shore, 
were the tents and camp-fire. After supper, 
just as the sun was tossing back its lingering 
kisses to the sleepy forest and wakeful river, 
the "river pigs" asked the preacher for a 
sermon. It was a surprising request, coming 
from a strange source. 

" The last crowd on the face o! the earth 
from which to expect such a demand," Hig- 
g^s said, in telling about it. " I had heard 
their fluent profanity, and when they asked 
lor the Gospel, I thought it was a joke. But 
they meant it." 

The request was in harmony with the hour. 
Evening's solemn hush breathed on tree and 
stream. The ceaseless babble of the river 
came in whispers. Man desired to join in 
the Creator's praise ; and where is there 
better sanctuary than the cloistered halls of 
the greenwood on the banks of a crystal 
stream ? Taking a log for a platform, un- 
aided by Bible or hymn-book, Higgins began 
his first service to the foresters. "Nearer 
My God to Thee " rolled through the ever- 



»i by Google 



36 The Parish of The Pines 

greens as the men of the pickpole joined 
heartily in the hymn. " Jesus Lover of My 
Soul " touched their heart chords and mel- 
lowed their rough voices ; the sunset smiled 
its approbation, and the silent forest bowed 
to the reverent strains. Over the running 
river the stately pines caught up the music 
and softly echoed back its closing prayer, 
" Oh, receive my soul at last" 

With what supreme interest the men 
around the camp-fire listened to the old, old 
story of Jesus, the Lover of Wanderers I 
The shadows fell and broadened on the dark- 
ening earth while the preacher spoke of the 
world's great Light; and the strange au- 
dience, wrapped in thought, saw life's possibil- 
ities in HioL Recollections of the home-tree 
came back. The sweet lullaby of mother 
stole into minds long forgetful. At the 
spring of boyhood they drank again and the 
councils of youth came to the men in the 
playing shadows of the dying fire. The 
benediction fell upon the group like a voice 
from another world, and in her echoed 
" Amen ! " nature breathed a prayer. 

On the morrow, when the visitor de- 
parted, the river pigs expressed their pleasure 
in the service. 

" We're way oft here in the timber and 



»i by Google 



A New Parish is Opened 37 

the church don't often come our way, but 
it's welcome." 

" If some preacher would drop in, he could 
give us a lift. The Lord knows we need it," 
laughed another to hide his earnestness. 

" What's the matter with you doin' a 
tura ?" they asked. 

In response to the invitation, Frank Hig- 
gins often went to the drive on Ketde River. 
An appreciative audience always awaited 
him. 

Prior to this, Higg^ns had never been on 
the drive. The work was new and strange 
to him ; but he joined the river pigs and 
added to their merriment by his unskillful at- 
tempts at log-riding. When the preacher 
mounted the floating timbers every driver 
expectandy looked out of the tail of his eye, 
joyfully awaiting the hastening moment 
when " his Reverence " would descend into 
\he depths. But a laugh could not deter a 
man like Higgins. If these men were to be 
his hearers he must be able to appreciate 
their labours. Real appreciation comes with 
experience, and Higgins had many drench- 
ings before it arrived. Men whose tasks de- 
mand muscular strength and skill admire the 
physically able. The lumberjacks and river- 



»i by Google 



38 The Parish of The Pines 

men despise the weak and fearhil and sup- 
port him who rehises to actnowledge deieat 
Physical prowess wins where mental powers 
fail to ^t a hearing ; but the combination of 
both, backed by a strong desire to serve, is 
sure of recognition. - 

" When you are in Bamum I want you to 
remember me," said the preacher to the 
drivers ; " my house and church are open to 
you. You are just as welcome as the people 
in the village." 

The boys remembered the invitation ; and 
a few Sundays later three big rivermen 
entered the church and took seats in the rear. 
They were dressed in their working clothes — 
shirts resplendent in fighting colours, broad 
belts, and heavy, spike-soled boots. Their 
presence created no small sensation. Bamum 
was accustomed to the lumberjacks and 
river pigs but it had never seen them in the 
church. 

Before beginning his service Higgins went 
to the men and gave them hearty greeting. 

"We thought we'd drop in and see if you'd 
welcome us to the gospel shop. You said 
you would," volunteered the spokesman. 
" And I guess be has, bunkies," he added, 
ttuning to his friends. 

After that they came to the little churdi 



»i by Google 



A New Parish is Opened 39 

whenever they spent Sunday in town. With 
the trio came others, knowing that they would 
be hospitably received. This proved to the 
preacher that the man who wishes a larger 
field has only to remove the fence that en- 
closes his present one. As often as his 
pressing duries allowed, the missionary 
followed his new found flock on the river. 
From the memories of the men who heard 
and of him who preached the pleasure of 
those sunset gatherings will never be effaced. 
Kettle River drive brought forth a larger 
harvest than preacher or river pig dreamed. 

In the fall of 189S a delegation of lumber- 
jacks called on Higgins and asked to be in- 
cluded in the circle of his ministrations. 

" We need you just as much as that crew 
of drivers you preached to in the spring," 
they said. And they looked the part they 



Camp after camp petitioned. The work 
grew until all those around the village were 
receiving occasional services from the un- 
ordained man who preached in the Presby- 
terian mission. The field was large, white 
for a willing harvest, but the labourers were 
few — only one. 

Late one night two lumberjacks came to 

U.g,l:«l by Google 



40 The Parish of The Pines 

Higgins' home. " We want you quick," 
they said. " We've brought Will Lee from the 
camp to his homestead. He's asldn' for you. 
He's a mighty sick maa" 

In company with the lumberjacks, Mr. 
Higgins went through the forest to the log 
cabin of the homesteader. The doctor met 
him at the door. 

" If we could get Lee to St. Luke's hospital 
in Duluth," said he, "there might be a chance 
for him. He cannot obtain the necessary 
care in this shack." 

" I'll get him through," said Higgins. 

They bundled the patient snugly into a 
sleigh, took him to the train and were soon 
at the hospital. 

After a careful examination the physician 
said : " There is no chance for your friend's 
recovery. He is beyond our help. You had 
better break the news to him." 

Gently the rough camp preacher told the 
dying man and asked him to make prepara- 
tion for the nearing end. The lumberjack 
looked into the eyes of the weeping minister 
and smilingly said : " Thank God you came 
to the camp — that night I heard you preach 
of the Saviour. I wanted to know Him. It 
was the first time in twenty years that I had 
heard the Gospel. ... I was raised in a 



»i by Google 



A New Parish is Opened 41 

good home, and that night the Christian 
teaching came back to me. . . . When 
the lanterns were put out and the bunk house 
was still, I got on my knees and prayed God 
to forgive the past . . . and make me a 
better man. . . . Jesus Christ brought 
His strong salvation to me. I was forgiven." 

He paused through weakness. The death 
cloud was in his eyes. 

"Mr. Higgins, go back to the camps 
. . . and tell the boys the story of Jesus 
Christ ... Go back and tell them the 
old story. . . . They need you worse 
than the towns do. . . . Tell them that 
Jesus can make them live. ... Go back 
to the camps." 

He ceased to speak. More feebly came 
the shortening breath. It fluttered ; and the 
spirit returned to the God who gave it 
That night all Higgins' plans changed, and 
ambitions, such as come to young men, were 
swept away. That night the large pulpits of 
which he had dreamed were superseded by 
the log or barrel of the bunk house and the 
future audiences were rough clothed, rough 
visaged men who worshipped in crude forest 
shacks. That night Higgins consecrated 
himself to the service of God and man in the 
logging camps. 



»i by Google 



42 The Parish of The Pines 

The extent of the field was bewildering ; 
the intensity of the need appalling. There 
were Christian men in the camps, and many 
others whose lives were moral ; but compared 
with those who wasted their substance in 
riotous living they were as a grain of wheat 
in a measure of chaff. The mass were 
" burning the candle at both ends with the 
devil setting it off in the middle." Their 
vidous hilarity knew no limit, their license no 
restraint. Free in the forest, they were not 
bound by convention in the towns. They 
needed human and divine assistance, and 
Higgins prayed for power to give both. 

Once in his endeavour to reach other 
camps he forgot that Sunday was near and 
pushed fcirther into the woods. The village 
congregation assembled, but no preacher ap- 
peared to assist them in their devotions. 
When Higgins returned early in the next 
week many inquired the cause of his ab- 
sence. 

" Didn't you have service ? " he asked. 

" There was no one to lead us," they ex- 
plained. 

" Aren't there any Christians here who can 
fill in occasionally?" asked the preacher. 
" Can't professing Christians praise God un- 
less they have a poor chap like me to direct 



»i by Google 



A New Parish is Opened 43 

them ? There's evidently not much danger 
of the world being evangeUzed from this 
point" 

The spring following his decision to devote 
himself exclusively to the campmen, Higgins 
was surprised on returning from the woods 
to find his home fiUed with lumberjacks. 
" Mr. Higgins," began the spokesman, 
"we've dropped in to tell you we've en- 
joyed your preachin'. The boys want me to 
make a spiel, but the saw's my line. You've 
treated us white ; you have given us more 
advice than we've followed, and you've never 
asked to see the colour of our money. This 
is no one sided affair. We're no cheap 
skates. The boys have chipped in and here's 
your stake for services rendered." 

He banded the minister a check for fifty- 
one dollars. Higgins had never asked the 
men for financial assistance. They at first 
thought that he was preaching " for what was 
in it" But the absence of appeal showed 
them that love for their good was the impel- 
ling cause ; so they gladly gave in return. 
How to finance the new missionary field had 
been a problem. Higgins was willing to 
worii; but living and travelling expenses 
must be forthcoming. The benevolent Boards 
of the church could not take on the new and 



»i by Google 



44 The Parish of The Pines 

untried work. Their hands were hill ; and 
these unsettled communities promised no per- 
manency. Now, through the benevolence of 
the woodsmen, Higgins saw a new possibility : 
the men in the camps would pay a goodly 
part if the mission were properly organized. 
The door was opening — he could see be- 
yond the portals. 



»i by Google 



IV 

THE HEART OF THE LOGGING DISTRICT 

IN the spring of 1S99 Frank Higgins took 
charge of the Presbyterian church at 
Bemidji, the heart of the Minnesota log- 
ging district, where thousands of lumberjacks 
rendezvoused and spent their earnings. He 
had learned the conditions of the woodsmen 
through the Bamum experience : he needed 
the intimacy of Bemidji to show him their 
real soul poverty. Here they were at their 
worst — a prey to every spoiler and evil de- 
signer. Bemidji is beautifully located. 
Lake Bemidji and Lake Irvine are inviting 
sheets of water with a shore line of nearly 
fifty miles. The Mississippi joins their crys- 
tal bodies ; and at the point of meeting is 
the little city of Bemidji. Those who plotted 
the town removed only the larger trees ; the 
homes of men rest in a shelter of constant 
green. Like a huge emerald in a setting of 
silver is the green crowned city with its lakes 
and flowing river. 

45 



»i by Google 



46 The Parish of The Pines 

Nature contributed lavishly ; hut man 
brought with him the defects of humanity, and 
painted the fair location with the blackness 
of unlicensed vice, filling an Eden of beauty 
with the blight of Sodom. It was a " wide 
open " town in which saloons abounded, 
gamblers worked unmolested and all sorts of 
sin flourished. Known as the most shame- 
less town in the state in those days, it seem- 
in^y lived up to its reputation. The police 
force was little more than a name. The sa- 
loon men were the powers. A convenient 
double blind veiled the face of justice. Law 
was roped and thrown. Rum was the real 
owner of the town. Gambling prospered in 
most of the saloons, its numerous devices 
openly attracting the indifferent Not satis- 
fied with what came to them, the runners of 
the saloons and dens went into the camps to 
drum up trade for their respective places of 
business — creating a sentiment that would 
induce " the boys " to visit the dens of vice. 
Bemidji did not savour of decency in those 
days ; it had not heard the word. It was 
young, wild and aboveboard. Everything 
was primitive ; the red light district was as 
conspicuous as the bank, both being consid- 
ered necessities. Physical and unrestrained, 
lusty in its desires, it did not concern itself 



»i by Google 



The Heart of the Logging District 47 

with moral distiactions or the niceties of 
ethics. 

The opening of a saloon or gambling den 
was accomplished with all the flourishes. 
The town officials attended ; the band was 
there, of course, and the majesty of the law 
was recognized by throwing the key of the 
saloon into the street with the announcement 
that the door would never be closed. Thus 
was the state enactment, requiring saloons 
to close at eleven o'clock at night, made the 
butt of license. Men and women were invited 
to the opening : even Mrs. Higgins received 
an invitation. As a citizen remarked ; " You 
can't put enough black in the picture when 
you try to paint it" But I am describing 
the past, not the present : for since that day 
the place has changed for the better. Its 
past srill influences it ; but a brighter day is 
in the dawning. To do justice to the moral 
element of the town it must be added that 
there were always those who strove for better 
conditions. Their efforts have met with 
some success : for Bemidji in 1912 is vasdy 
superior, and speaks of its past with shame. 

Frank Higgins found the Presbyterian 
church in a state of coma, promising an early 
death. Only two members remained; and 



»i by Google 



48 The Pariah of The Pines 

the unfinished edifice spoke eloquently of 
financial difficulties and lack of interest 
Higgins had no desire to act as undertaker 
to a departed church : and so he set himself 
to resurrect the scattered adherents and to 
complete the building. There heing no suit- 
able place of residence for his family, the 
unfinished church became meeting house 
and manse combined. The minister who 
preceded Higgins had scored a failure. 
Discouragement and opposition had finally 
driven him from the place. The vicious ele- 
ment were sure they could repeat the act with 
the new man; but unfortunately for them, 
Frank Higgins throve on opposition and 
was unacquainted with discouragement. 

Shortly after his arrival, the new preacher 
was standing on the comer of the main 
street when a flashily dressed fellow, whose 
clothes loudly announced the gambler, ao 
costed him. 

"Who' re you?" demanded the diamond- 
studded stranger. 

" I'm the new minister of the Presbyterian 
church." 

"Well, you won't last long here," the 
stranger sneeringly retorted. "We drove 
out the other chap. You'll have to go. 
When doctors hit a town, folks die: when 



»i by Google 



The Heart of the Logging District 49 

ministers come, folks go to hell. But we'll 
clean you out of here pretty damned quick." 

" Well, I guess it's my play," drawled Hig- 
gins ; " and here's where I give notice that / 
stay and call your bluff I " 

The closed fist of Higgins quickly followed 
his words. It landed with startling heavi- 
ness near the inviting diamond stud of the 
gambler, who tumbled into the gutter and 
frantically waved his feet in the air while a 
howl of fright came from his lips. The crowd 
laughed as it watched the gambler arise from 
the clinging mud. The town marshal hur- 
ried forward. 

"Whafs the matter with you?" he asked 
the preacher. 

" Nothing the matter with me," Higgins 
replied, unperturbed. " There seems to t)e 
something the matter with the fellow down 
there. I'm all right" 

That night the lawless element decided 
that it had made a mistake in driving the 
other preacher out of town. " He was only 
a preacher ; but this fellow is a preacher with 
a mighty heavy fist — and the Lord only 
knows what he has up his sleeve I " 

Higgins cheerfully threw himself into the 
life of the new town. It needed reforming ; 
and he wished to hasten the day. Every 



»i by Google 



5© The Parish of The Pines 

election became an opportunity for protest- 

- ing against the lawless conditions. After a 

civic campaign in which the " wide open " 

policy had again been successful, the jubilant 

victors were celebrating with open house 

and free whiskey when the suggestion was 

pinade that it would spice the occasion if a 

/ keg of beer were discovered in the Presby- 

I terian church. Mr. Higgins was living in 

I the church ; and, upon returning home 

V late in the evening, found the keg that the 

1 conspirators had left The humour of the in- 

i cident appealed to the minister ; and he 

V,acted accordingly. The conspirators had 

in the meantime quietly informed some of 

the members of the congregation that the 

pastor had a keg of beer hidden away in the 

church. Early next morning the trouble 

hunters, in the absence of the minister, 

searched the premises. 

p — ""feeer ? " said Higgins. " Oh, yes 1 Some 

\ friend left a keg here. I sold it and sent the 

[ money to the Board of Home Missions." 

It was a hard fight But Higgins won — 
won after his appeal to the dty and county 
governments, and even the state officials, 
had failed. The issue was presented from 
the pulpits and in private conversation. 



»i by Google 



The Heart of the Logging District 51 

The women organized a W. C. T. U. and 
carried on the fight over the back fences and 
at their regular meetings. 

The years at Bemidji crowded themselves 
with work and success. The unfinished edi- 
fice received completion during the first 
year ; during the next a cozy manse was 
built, while the membership and congrega- 
tions steadily increased ; in the third year 
the outstation at Farley erected a chtu^ and 
the growing congregation at Bemidji found 
it necessary to build a more commodiotis 
church before the fourth year ended. 
Throughout his entire pastorate Higgins was 
in the throes of building operations. 

The camp work, however, was not neg- 
lected. "Those boys out there in the 
woods," he said, " got on my nerves. I 
wanted to do something to show them that 
somebody cared for their souls. In one of 
the camps a poor fellow had his skull crushed 
by a dead limb falling from the tops. I was 
in there at the time. We nailed a few pine 
boards together, and outside of the camp we 
buried the man. As I stood beside that 
lonely grave, my heart cried out, ' Oh, God, 
what can I do to help these poor fellows to 
live right ? If you can use Frank Higgins 
more, just show him how ! ' I was never 



»i by Google 



$2 The Parish of The Pines 

much at writing. But I wrote an article for 
a religious paper, telling, as best I knew how, 
something about the immorality and needs 
of the men, and to my surprise, a woman, 
God bless her I sent me a check for two hun- 
dred dollars. I felt so good over it that I 
hired two men to go into the camps and 
preach and trusted in God for the rest of the 
money to pay their salary ; and He saw that 
1 got it." 

In addition to his church duties, Higgins 
every winter gave personal attention to nine 
camps and regularly visited three each week. 
The seven addresses weekly, the miles of 
walking, the pastoral calls and the cares of 
building filled his hours to the brim. One 
morning, on returning from the camps, he 
was informed by Mrs. Higgins of an urgent 
call from the Sisters' Hospital. He went at 
once to the ward and found Will McDonald, 
a Highland Scotchman, at the point of death. 
McDonald had met with a fatal acddeat in 
the camps. Though reared in a quiet Chris- 
tian home among the bonny hills of Scot- 
land, amidst the rough life of the Minnesota 
camps he had forgotten his early instruction 
and had travelled the easy ways of tempta- 
tion. 

The preacher tried to cheer the dying 



»i by Google 



The Heart of the Logging District 53 

man, but the woodsman turned to him and 
said: 

" If s no use, Frank. The jig is up. I've 
got to go. I'm nearing the landing with a 
heavy load. The road is steep. Do you 
think I'll make the grade ? " 

McDonald was a four horse teamster, and 
was thinking of the unknown road and the 
possibilities of this first and last journey over 
it 

"Yes, Will ; you can make the grade, but 
you'll have to look for help." 

"You mean I'll have to call for another 
team of leaders to help me up ? " 

" That is it I " said Higgins. " But thank 
God, McDonald, you iKive the greatest 
Leader to give you a lift — the Lord Jesus 
Christ Every man He has helped has made 
the grade. Listen, Will I " 

Taking out his pocket Testament, the 
preacher read of the prodigal, and of how, by 
God's help, he had made the grade. Then 
came the strengthening text setting forth 
God's love for a lost world and the needless- 
ness of perishing. " Turn to Him, Will, and 
the grade will be easy." The missionary 
prayed, asking that poor broken Will 
McDonald might make the grade and arrive 
at the heavenly landing. In the ward the 



»i by Google 



54 The Parish of The Pines 

other lumberjacks heard the prayer, and while 
tears coursed their bronzed faces, they, too, 
uttered silent petitions, crude but genuine, 
that their fellow campman might reach the 
hilltop. A few hours later Mr. Higgins 
again called at the hospital. The screen was 
around the bed. Near by sat the Sister of 
Charity with book and beads. The minister 
knelt at the Scotchman's side and the dying 
man's face lit with a smile when he recog- 
nized his visitor. 

" You're right, Frank. Jesus Christ is a 
great Leader. I couldn't have made the 
grade without Him. ... I needed His 
help. . ... I'm going up the grade 
easily. . . . We're going to make it 
sure." McDonald was sinking rapidly. 
The missionary bent close to catch his words. 
"Tell the boys I've made the grade," he 
whispered — and with a smile was gone. 

Higgins likes to speak of himself as a 
" rough man." And perhaps, indeed, he 
lacks the graces of what is called the " pink- 
tea parson." There was some objection to 
his ordination by the Presbytery of Duluth ; 
but in the end he received the ordination he 
coveted — and which " the boys " demanded 
in his behalf. Subsequently be took what 



»i by Google 



The Heart of the lagging District 55 

he calls a " post-graduate course." And a 
curious course it was I The woodsmen of 
winter are farm-hands, railroad cotistruction- 
ists and wanderers in summer ; and Mr. 
Higgins wished to acquaint himself with the 
summer life of his future parishioners. Don- 
ning the clothes of a labouring man, he 
mounted a freight train and began a long 
Western trip of quiet investigation. In west- 
em North Dakota he laboured for several 
days as a harvest hand, meeting many of the 
men he had known in the Minnesota woods. 
He next shipped with a gang of scrapermen 
for construction work 00 a new railway in 
Montana. Shortly afterwards he joined a 
pick and shovel gang at the Dalles in Ore- 
gon, and finally went as a deck hand on a 
Columbia River boat, landing at Portland, 
where he ended his journey. In all parts of 
his hobo trip he found the winter woodsmen, 
some labouring, some leisurely passing the 
warm and sunny days in idleness. As a 
working man he entered the larger churches 
to see the reception they would tender the 
wanderer. He camped with the " down-and- 
outs," ate with the " panhandlers," roomed at 
cheap lodging houses, or slept on the hard 
floors of the " side-door-pullmans." He saw 
the life as one who lived and experienced it, 



»i by Google 



56 The Parish of The Pines 

felt the pangs of hunger, encountered the 
slights and rejections, the hardships and 
lovelessness to which their lives were sub- 
jected, and out of the knowledge came a 
broader sympathy, -a more ready ability to 
help. When he returned to Bemidji the new 
church was ready for dedication and after a 
few weeks he left the pastorate to give him- 
self wholly to the twenty thousand men of 
Minnesota's camps. On the day he resigned 
from the church he thus announced his in- 
tention to be a pastor to the woodsmen : " I 
belong to them now, and the vices that mar 
my brothers of the camps will find me act- 
ively opposing them. The fight of the men 
is mine. Untrammelled I go to assist them. 
May God give me and the boys His help I " 

His field was waiting. He now became ia 
reality " The Lumberjacks' Sky Pilot" 



»i by Google 



"NOW WE'RE LOGGIN' " 

WHEN a lumber company contem- 
plates logging, cruisers are sent 
through its lands to estimate the 
timber. A crew of experienced woodsmen 
follow, who select sites for camps and lay out 
the logging roads. This latter is not an easy 
task, for the roads must be as nearly level as 
the possibilities of the land allow. A hill 
means reducing the size of the loads and a 
consequent increase in the cost of production. 
A grade scarcely noticeable to the eye adds 
danger. If there be a descent, it must be 
towards the landing; hence the need of 
skilled road makers. The logging roads are 
constructed inthe early autumn. The " main 
stem," as the principal road is called, is from 
fifty to seventy-five feet in width and extends 
for miles, ending at a lake, river or railroad. 
Branches run out from this road to all parts 
of the forest and a " come-back " road some- 
times parallels it. The " main stem," broad, 
level, often winding around the hills, sug- 



»i by Google 



58 The Parish of The Pines 

gests a city boulevard and would do credit 
to the large municipalities. 

When the cold, binding wind of the north 
has frozen the hills and glens and the oozy 
swamp lands become resistant to the tread, 
the unsightly rut-cutter is hauled over the 
newly made roads. This mechanism cuts 
two deep grooves, eight feet apart These 
ruts are partly filled with water from the 
water tank and in the icy troughs thus formed 
the huge runners of the heavy logging sleds 
travel with ease and security. 

The sleds are bulky affairs. On the heavy 
runners rest the sixteen to twenty feet bunks 
and the sled, with its chains, weighs about 
thirty-five hundred pounds — a. good load in 
itselL 

Logging from the stump has had its day. 
Now the haul is counted in miles, not in 
yards as formerly. Yesterday they used the 
hand spike in loading; to-day the steam 
jammer lifts the logs into place. Then oxen 
hauled the small loads of a thousand feet ; 
now the steam-hauler drags its chains of 
trailing sleds and fifty to seventy-five thou- 
sand feet of lumber constitute a single load. 
Horses are used for hauling in most of the 
camps, as the steam-hauler is a new and ex- 
pensive machine. Where the roads are in 



»i by Google 



by Google 



F'jil 


C i. 


r^r 


'UiY 


T,-J':l 


."■•' 


'o' 


"ONS 



U.g,l:«l by Google 



" Now We're Lo^n' " 59 

good condttioD the amount drawn by two or 
four horses is almost unbelievable. A load 
of logs containing thirty-six thousand six 
hundred board feet was hauled two miles by 
four horses at Grindstone Lake, Minnesota. 
It was twenty-one feet wide, twenty-six feet 
high, and the logs numbered one hundred 
and fifty-three. Another load was taken 
from a camp near Shell Lake, Wisconsin, 
that contained thirty-one thousand fotu* hun- 
dred and eighty feet of lumber. A thousand 
feet in the green log, with its attendant slabs 
and bark, weighs nearly eight thousand 
pounds. The above figures will give some 
idea of the splendid horse-flesh in the pineries 
and also show the perfecdon to which the 
road making is carried. The ordinary load 
is from six to twelve thousand feet. 

The camp is generally situated near the 
centre of the land or on an elevation conveni- 
ent to water. The buildings consist trf cook- 
shack, made large enough for dining pur- 
poses, bunk houses for the men, carpenter 
and blacksmith shops, filer's shack, bams 
and office — a little village in itself. All these 
buildings are constructed of logs chinked 
with clay and are quite warm. 

The interior of the cook-shack is interest- 
ing. Visitors are apt to journey first in that 



»i by Google 



6o The Parish of The Pines 

direction, not because of appetite, but to sat- 
isfy their curiosity and to " see the animals 
feed." At one end of the room stand the 
large stoves, sending out their heat and 
odours. The walls near them resemble the 
interior of a country store with its medley of 
cans and packages. The rest of the space is 
reserved for the dining tables, where dishes 
of tin (though a few camps have introduced 
enamelware), substantial iron knives and 
forks and unsubstantial tin spoons suggest 
a tin shop. Botties that once beid patent 
medicine or whiskey stand here and there 
among the tin dishes and the visitor is uncer- 
tain as to the sociability of the place or its 
unhealthfulness until the better informed as- 
sure him that the contents are catsup or vin- 
egar. 

The interior decorations are not conducive 
to good appetite. " We use oleomargarine 
all the time " has a conspicuous place — and 
the writer has never doubted that " oleo," or 
a dissembling substitute, was used in every 
camp he visited. " No talking at the tables " 
also glares at the diners. This is probably a 
wise precaution : for it saves time, keeps the 
men from quarrelling, and, in case the food 
is below standard, the grumbler is silent un> 
til after he has left the table. 



»i by Google 



!PW3L!C l.:si 
I'BTOH. LENO 



U.g,l:«l by Google 



»i by Google 



" Now We're Loggin' " 61 

The fcMxl is generally very good, strong, 
substantial, abundant and of sufficient va- 
riety. The fastidious would hardly care for 
the slap-dash service ; but the lumberjacks 
are not fastidious. He vho labours in the 
pine-ladea air does not quarrel wiih the serv- 
ice il the quality and quantity be right 
Beef, pork, potatoes, beans, peas and dried 
fruits form the bill of fare. 

The bunk houses are large and roomy. On 
the long sides of the building double-decked 
bunks are constructed. If their ends are 
towards the centre of the room they are called 
" muzzle-loaders," and where the sides are 
parallel with the walls they received the pa- 
latial name of " Pullmans." Some of them 
are none too clean. In the centre of the floor 
stands the large cylindrical wood-stove. 
Above it hangs the drying rack. Every 
lumberjack wears several pairs of socks to 
keep out the cold and in the evening he 
places them on the rack to dry. Water and 
tin basins are convenient for those who are 
acquainted with the sanitary custom of bath- 
ing. 

The clerk, bosses, scalers and others of 
more pretentious occupation sleep in the of- 
fice, one comer of which is set apart for the 
wannigan — the camp store. Here the men 



»i by Google 



62 The Parish of The Pines 

buy clothing, shoes, tobacco and other sta- 
ples. The stock is not extensive, but the 
high price of Hving has reached the woods, 
and twenty-five cent socks are sold at fifty 
cents. One of the clerks said, " I have 
charge of the wannigan — the first graft on 
the lumberjack," A Pennsylvania Dutch- 
man is credited with the remark : " I never 
do business for less than one per cent I buy 
these things for six dollars a dozen and sell 
them for twelve." That Dutchman ought to 
be in the camps. 

In the old days, before the influx of foreign 
labour, the native workers predominated and 
had a vernacular of their own, as the follow- 
ing shows. 

A top loader had met with an accident 
The Sister in the hospital asked him how it 
happened. 

" Well, you savvy," said Jack, " the 
grounder bunched her an' the push, seein' 
a green guy comin' up the pike, hailed him. 
I told the guy to give 'er a St Croix an' he 
give 'er a Sag an' gunned 'er. The muzzle 
hit my stem an' broke it." 

Which, being freely translated, means : 

" The man who worked on the ground at 
the loading station gave up his job and the 
boss, seeing a new man coming up the main 



»i by Google 



" Now We're Loggin' " 63 

logging road, set him to work with me. I 
told the new man to hold back the log with 
his cant-hook, but he pushed it forward so that 
the log pointed upward like a gun and the 
upper end hit my leg and broke it." 

Where there are several camps owned by 
the same company, the important personage 
is the "walking boss" — the superintendent 
of all the camps. " The push " is in charge 
of a single camp, and "the straw push " is 
the under boss. Cooks are "dough punchers" 
or "biscuit shooters," and if unskilled, 
"stomach robbers." Their assistants are 
"lunkies" or " cookees." The carpenter 
answers to the appellation of " wood-butcher," 
while the clerk is " the bloat that makes the 
stroke" or the "ink splasher," The man 
who keeps the ice roads free from refuse is 
" the road monkey " and the workman who 
tends the bunk-house fires is "the shanty 
boss " or " the bull cook," because, in the old 
days, when oxen were used, it was also his 
duty to see to their comfort. The top-loader 
is a " sky-hooker " and the missionary is " the 
sky pilot" Skidders, teamsters, sawyers, 
swampers and others make up the camp 
crew. 

Wages rEmge from twenty-six dollars a 
month for the swampers to sixty dollars and 



»i by Google 



64 The Parish of The Pines 

upwards for the coolc The cook is the 
highest paid man with the exception of the 
boss, who generally receives from seventy-five 
to one hundred dollars a month. Board is 
provided for all the men in addition to their 
■wages. " In the works," where the trees are 
felled, the men labour in crews. The sawyers 
fell the timber ; the swampers trim the trunk 
of its branches and make openings through 
which the logs are drawn to the skidways. 

That logging will be a principal industry 
in Minnesota for the next twelve years is the 
belief of the well-informed. The timber is 
disappearing at the rate of two billion board 
feet a year and the camps and mills of the 
state employ almost forty thousand men. 
Where once the timid deer cropped the tender 
herbage the rough camps of the forestCTS lift 
theh- ugly sides and before the keen blades of 
the campmen the solitudes are passing. 



»i by Google 



THE JACKS IN THEIR FOREST HOME 

INTO the camps crowd the lumberjacks 
with the coming of winter. " Why is it 
that they are willing to go into isolation 
and hardship? "you ask. We can only answer, 
" Why do the sailors go down to the sea in 
ships?" Douglas Mailoch, the lumberman's 
poet, says in " The Calling of the Pines " 

" When I listen to the callin' of the pine. 
When I drink the brimmin' cup of forest wine — 
Then the path of life is sweet to my travel-weary 

feet 
When I listen to the callin' of the pine." 

Many have followed the camps from boy- 
hood. I met one man who had spent fifty 
winters in the woods, and his brother almost 
as many. It had become second nature ; the 
lure of the woods was irresistible. 

In the towns and villages the lumberjacks 
are seen at their worst because civilization 
only welcomes them to its vices : in the 
camps they are seen at their best, the causes 
of their depravity being absent These big, 
65 



»i by Google 



66 The Parish of The Pines 

hearty fellows may abound in vices, but they 
have their code of honour, and the man who 
departs from it will hnd it necessaiy to depart 
from the camp. Depraved, yet they command 
the respect of men who are acquainted with 
their better natures. 

The old lumberjack will not tolerate the 
least word of slander against a good woman. 
If she is entitled to his respect she is entitled 
to his defense. He may be steeped in vice 
himself ; but he esteems clean lives, and a 
good woman appeals to his chivalry. She is 
as safe in the camps as in her own home, her 
purity being her protection. The Sisters of 
' Charity go from camp to camp soliciting for 
ho^itals and schools. They are often miles 
from any habitation and when night overtakes 
them they sleep in the camps. I have never 
heard of one of them being molested in these 
lonely trips. Among the rough, profane 
foresters they are as safe as behind the care- 
fully locked doors of the convent. The 
lumberjack who would wrong one of them, 
or any good woman, would probably not 
leave the camp alive. On one occasion a 
camp foreman, with his wife, entered the 
caboose of a logging train. In the car the 
men were drinking. The bottle was passed 
around and all drank, the foreman included. 



»i by Google 



The Jacks in Their Forest Home 67 

As it went the rounds it was offered to the 
foreman's wife ; but scarcely had it been ex- 
tended when the husband floored the donor 
and kicked him out. 

In settling disputes, nature's weapons are 
the sole instruments used. The fist is the 
arbiter, although the boot is sometimes called 
into exercise. Fights due to personal ani- 
mosity are to be expected where men are 
free from the restraints of civilization; and 
often the friendly boxing and wrestling, 
which help to pass many lonely hours, gen- 
erate a battle in which hate is the ruling 
passion. In Camp 14 an ex-convict, for 
some unknown reason, made life miserable 
for an easy-going Irishman whose blood was 
more sluggish than that of the average son 
of Erin. At tastthe attacks were more than 
the peace-loving fellow could stand. (How 
doth the proverb read ? " Beware of the 
wrath of the silent man " ? ) He went to his 
bunk, drew on his spiked boots and rushed 
to meet the ex-convict With a blow of his 
fist he floored the tormentor, and, beside 
himself with rage, kicked him until his body 
was a mass of bruises. Had not the woods- 
men interfered, he would doubtlessly have 
killed him. The wounded man was taken 
to the hospital, where he remained for sev- 



»i by Google 



68 The Parish of The Pines 

eial weeks, and, on recovering, left for other 
parts, to the satis&^on of all. 

Mason and Graham' were not on amicable 
terms. A storm bad been slowly brewing 
between the two teamsters, and on the night 
of Higgins' adventat Camp i they exchanged 
blasphemous descriptions so freely that every 
man in the bunk house knew that diplomatic 
relations had been completely severed and 
hostilities declared. The contestants were 
now looking for the advantage of position 
before beginning the fight As a messenger 
of peace, the missionary felt that he must try 
to settle the difficulty before the men ap- 
pealed to brute force. But the enmity was 
of long standing and the desire for each 
other's subjection too strong for either of 
them to listen to council, no matter how 
wise. In fact, the possibility of the fight 
being stopped aroused them to greater 
anger ; and in the presence of the would-be 
peacemaker they flew at each other in the 
vicious hilarity of battle. 

Higgins (the camp work was new to him 
then) rushed into the m^Se and grabbed 
Mason by the waist, believing, in his inno- 
cency, that " it takes two to make a quarreL" 
The missionary held his man in a vise-like 



»i by Google 



The Jacks in Their Forest Home 69 

grip and the battle halted for a moment. 
Graham, however, turned suddenly from his 
opponent and gave Higgins a terrific blow, 
which sent him to the dirty floor. 

"See here, Pilot," cried Graham, "butt in 
all you want to until the first blow is struck, 
then climb into the top bunk as fast as God 
will let you I Thaf s the law in the camps." 

It was good advice : Higgins took it. 
From a safe position he watched the contest 
through its bloody length, his aching jaw 
quickening his sympathy for the men as they 
bruised each other on the floor below. 

" I hated to hit you, Pilot," said Graham 
afterwards ; " but when a man and his wife 
want to find out who is boss they hate to 
have the neighbours interfere with Uieir fam- 
ily plans." 

" I begin to see," said Higgins, and his 
hand unconsciously sought his jaw. 

Card plajnng is a favourite time-killer. 
Where the towns are inaccessible the woods- 
men spend the evenings and the Sabbath 
with the greasy cardboards. Some of the 
proprietors forbid cards in the interest of 
peace. The missionary arrived at a camp 
where Saturday evening was always given 
over to gambling. The game had begun 



»i by Google 



7© The Parish of The Pines 

and he feared he Tould not be allowed to 
hold service ; for the foreman was a profes- 
sional gambler who invariably succeeded at 
the weekly games. 

" What are the chances of holding a serv- 
ice here to-night ? " asked the preacher of the 
playing foreman. 

"The luck's with youi When do you 
want to begin ? " 

" Right now," answered the surprised 
missionary, "if it is convenient" 
r~**TJfhat say, boys?" asked the foreman. 
r I have a good hand and I propose that we 
cum this jackpot over to the preacher." 
/ The pot held fourteen dollars, but the 
/preacher tactfully refused it 

Since the missionaries began the distribu- 
tion of magazines many of the workmen 
spend the spare moments in reading. The 
lumberjacks start to work by the light of the 
" loggers' sun " (torchlight), and it is dark 
when they return in the evening. The win- 
ter days are short in the north. At nine the 
" bull cook " puts out the bunk-house lights 
and the camp is soon asleep. This rule is 
common to all the camps and is seldom ques- 
tioned. One night however, a drunken 
lumberjack kept all his campmates awake 



»i by Google 



The Jacks in Their Forest Home 71 

with his maudiin lamentations. " I want t' 
die I I'm goin' t* die I Gimme a razor 1 " 
he shouted ; and in spite of the efforts to 
silence tiim he still shouted his desire. At 
midnight they sent for the " push," who, 
being a man for emergencies, took his rifle 
and entered the bunk house. 

"You want to die?" cried the boss 
fiercely. "All right, I'll help you!" He 
cocked the empty gun and pointed it at the 
shouting man. 

The tide turned quickly. The drunk 
pleaded for his life and begged on bended 
knee for the privilege of living, while the 
camp howled its delight The foreman re- 
lented, lowered the gun, and silence reigned 
until the blast of the cookee's horn broke the 
morning stillness. 

Everything about the lumberjack is pic- 
turesque, even his profanity. So habituated 
is he to swearing that even spiritual matters 
are discussed in language shockingly at con- 
trast with the subject, A hymn-book fell 
into the hands of a lumberjack who read 
music. The fellow had a good voice and 
sangji to his mates. " That's a damned fine 
song," said the singer, enthusiastically ; " the 
show don't reach it — not by a h — 1 of a 



»i by Google 



72 The Parish of The Pines 

sight I " He sang another. The sentiment 
of the hymn pleased him and called forth 
this commendation : " Hov the devil do 
they think of such fine things ? It's the 
blankety blankest song I ever heard." 
There was no intentional irreverence — he 
spoke admiringly and used verbal gestures. 

An old timer told the writer of an inddent 
he had witnessed. They were loading with 
steam jammer; and the "sky-hooker" on 
the car was in a rage. One of the logs did 
not come up to suit him and he vented his 
wrath in profanity that startled even the 
lumberjacks. The explosion ended with a 
direct appeal to all the Persons of the God- 
head — an unspeakable oath. 

" I never heard anything like it," said the 
old timer ;'" it scared the whole loading crew. 
Less than ten minutes afterwards the hook 
broke and a log weighing tons crushed the 
hooker to pulp. I used to swear, but that 
day ended it" 

If you wish to meet geoerotis-hearted men, 
visit the logging camps. The typical jack is 
benevolent and responsive, glad to amelio- 
rate suffering. Money has Iittie value to 
him : it represents the price of a short-lived 
pleasure and he will sacrifice that pleasure to 



»i by Google 



by Google 



PUBLIC LlbKARY 



U.g,l:«l by Google 



The Jacks in Their Forest Home 73 

help another. Beggars, cripples and charity 
workers know this and impose on his large 
heartedness. One notorious cripple has 
hegged yearly for money to buy an artificial 
limb. He still walks with a crutch although 
the boys have contributed the price of a 
score of limbs. 

The spirit of " the boys " was shown when 
the foreman's baby was baptized in the bunk 
house. After the ceremony Mr. Higgins pre- 
sented a bundle of clothing sent by the in- 
terested women of a city church where he 
had mentioned the approaching baptism. In 
the presence of the campmen the parcel was 
opened ; and when they saw its contents 
their wrath kindled. 

The garments were second hand. 

" We're no paupers," they cried. " What 
do they mesm by msultin' our-kid with such 
duds ? " 

The hat was passed. Every man cast in 
liberally — " so that our kid can hold up his 
head." These uncouth, uncultured prodigals 
resented the type of generosity that the 
wealthy church habitually extends to- its 
refined, college-bred home missionaries. 
Many a poor fellow has found true charity 
among these rough-hewn men. The sick are 
not dependent on the community if their 



»i by Google 



74 The Parish of The Pines 

fellows know of it ; the dead lumberjack is 
not interred in the potter's held. Say what 
you will about the lumberjack, but put the 
grace of charity to his credit and let it cover 
a multitude of sins. 

There is little sickness among the workers, 
despite the limited chance for personal clean- 
liness. If one bathes one must do so in the 
presence of the whole camp. It is difficult to 
secure clean garments and the horse blankets 
in the bunks have probably never seen soap 
and water since they left the mills. But the 
hours in the pure air, and the hard, active 
life counteract these disease-breeding condi- 
tions. The hospital cases are mostly due to 
nameless causes or to accidents. Felling 
large trees is never without hazard ; the 
loading is still more dangerous, and " break- 
ing the loads " stands at the head of the list. 
In the foregoing chapters there is no desire 
to convey the impression that all the camp- 
men are sunken in vice. There are all kinds 
and conditions among them. Many of these 
men come from homes of refinement and 
ease, but through adversity have gone down 
to lower plains. Others have followed the 
woods from youth and are unfitted for any 
other labour, yet amidst surroundings that 



»i by Google 



The Jacks in Their Forest Home 75 

tempt to vidousness they have kept their 
morals with scrupulous care. 

Dick Jackson came &:om a [arm in Iowa 
and saw no reason why his home habits \ 
should be changed, so in his first night in the 
camp he knelt by his bunk to pray. One of 
the men threw a boot at him which caused 
Dick abruptly to end his prayer and disap- 
pear in the bunk, much to the enjoyment of 
the watching crew. A teamster saw the in- 
cident and after soundly thrashing the boot- 
thrower dragged Dick from his bed and 
thrust him to his knees. 

" Here, damn you, pray ! " ordered the 
teamster roughly ; " and as loi^g as you stay 
in this blazing camp, you say your prayers. 
This hole needs them. Now get busy, and 
if you cut it out I'll warm your blank h'tAe-." _ 

In another camp a lumberjack knelt to 
pray before retiring. He also met interrup- 
tion in the form of a well-flung rubber. The 
praying man, being of physical as well as 
spiritual soundness, rose from his knees and 
beat the disturber into subjection, then re- 
turned to his prayers and finished them with- j 
out further interruption. 

The campmen are a neglected class. No 
one has touched them with the elevating 



»i by Google 



76 The Parish of The Pines 

power of good. They are isolated from dvl- 
Uzation and its good agendas ; but the vices 
of the provinces pursued them because there 
was " money in it." The railroad men of a 
few years ago were near the level of the 
lumberjacks. The saving agency to them 
was the restraint of home and through the 
home the Gospel and its adjuncts. Christian 
people helped the railroaders with Young 
Men's Christian Associations and missions ; 
the Church extended its hand, and under the 
stimulus the men arose to their proud posi- 
tion. But what has been done for the lumber- 
jacks? Almost nothing. They work through 
the dreary, cruel winter in the far-away 
camps, and when they return in the spring 
only the hand of the depraved is extended in 
welcome: "Come and have a hot drink, 
boys ; it's one on the house." . . . 



»i by Google 



THE GOSPEL IN THE SHACKS 

♦•^l AHE groves were God's first tem- 
I pies," designed for devotion and 
A prayer — so we poetically believe. 
I never pass through the Northern pineries, 
beholding the long fingers oE cooling green 
pointing to the eternal blue, without feeling 
an exaltation of spirit, a desire to praise their 
Creator. Shrub and towering tree, the aisles 
of the wood, the sweet, soothing comfort of 
the ^ence all conduce to adoration and 
praise. No temple is more devotional than 
this whose dome is of sheltering leaves, 
whose columns are living, graceful trees. 
The modem lumberjacks, not being relig- 
iously inclined but, on the contrary, boister- 
ous in blasphemy and willful in vice, see 
nothing conducive to devotion in the peace- 
ful, green-capped solitudes. Yet nature calls 
to worship though the ears of men be stopped. 
In the gray of dawn her voice is clear and 
wooing and as the loggers tighten their 



»i by Google 



78 The Parish of The Pines 

heavy belts and greet the day with shoul- 
dered ax she whispers — " Praise 1 " In the 
busy noon, amidst the rum of bruised and 
broken pines, the playing winds echo her 
morning wish — " Praise 1 " When the hush 
of evening falls upon the dying day and the 
purple west looks through the crown of green, 
while weary men turn homeward to the 
camps, she sends her good-night calt~- 
" Praise I " But the campmen, untutored in 
her language, sightless to her beckoning, 
make no response : they rather damn the 
cook for his " bum grub " and " the push " 
for a thousand things. 

The Church has gone into the populous, 
accessible places, proclaiming her message : 
the solitudes have been untouched. Perhaps 
the Church considered the solitudes a thank- 
less task, promising small returns ; perhaps 
it looked on the lumber district as a domain 
for which the fallen one held a properly 
signed patent ; perhaps it did not know the 
big need of the unthinking forest men. 
Whatever the cause, it is evident to all who 
know the lumber regions that His Satanic 
Majesty rules there and draws a large rev- 
enue hom his realm. His authority has 
scarcely been questioned. 

On visiting a camp for the first time the 



»i'bv Google 



The Gospel in the Shacks 79 

missionary is apt to inquire : " Ever have any 
preachers up this way?" , 

" No : nobody cares whether we land in 
hell or not," is likely to be the answer. 

" Preachers are only after the stake," said 
one ; " they don't care for us poor devils. 
Their heaven is for the rich. We're only 
welcome down the slide." 

" Here's one who doesn't ask for cash, but 
wants to give the lumberjacks a lift." replied 
the minister. 

"Where's the guy you're talkin' about?" 
asked the wondering jack, not being accus- 
tomed to preachers in loggers' clothing. 

" I'm the fellow," laughed the missionary ; 
" and I'll prove it in the bunk house to-night 
by preaching to the crew. Get busy and let 
the boys know that something is going to 
happen at seven thirty." 

There is no suggestion of " the cloth " 
about Frank Higgins. If you met him on 
the trail, "turkey " on his back, you would 
tiiink him a healthy, sober lumberjack beaded 
for camp at a good steady gait. He dresses 
like his parishioners, mackinaw jacket, boots 
and cap. The touch of sun and wind has 
bronzed his full face, his stride is the swing 
of the old timer, and his broad shoulders are 
in keeping with the forest about him. Big 



»i by Google 



8o The Parish of The Pines 

and healthy, he is five feet nine and over and 
weighs two hundred pounds. The eyes are 
clear, the jaw resolute, the grip hearty, the 
voice unforced brotherliness. He looks a 
man : he is one. 

After supper the men crowd the bunk 
house, smoking, swearing, rollicking like 
schoolboys or quarrelling over trifles in their 
narrow lives. What an audience 1 It is cos- 
mopolitan : the ends of the earth have con- 
tributed all classes and conditions — the best, 
the worst — and the stamp of isolation is on 
every face. The " deacons' benches " at the 
ends of the bunks are crowded, and the bunks 
above are filled with men in every attitude that 
fancy can suggest No churchly congregation 
this 1 Free as the forest air, it is informal as 
Eden but not so cleanly. The men are boot- 
less and their stockinged feet dangling from 
crowded bunks suggest a chimney scene on 
Christmas night. Around the blazing stove 
the discarded boots lie in drying heaps ; on 
the rack above hundreds of damp socks 
speak in arrogant eloquence. The smoke of 
cheap tobacco thickens the turbid atmosphere, 
the reeking lanterns glow like sickly fireflies, 
and the only note of cheer comes from the 
cylindrical stove which pours its heat in un- 
discouraged plenty. Nothing suggests the 



»i by Google 



The Gospel in the Shacks 8 1 

sanctuary, yet men have met God in these 
places and the bunk house has become a 
bethel. 

An upturned barrel serves for pulpit, and 
a horse blanket, bearing the manufacturer's 
name in large letters, is the embroidered al- 
tar cloth. No Genevan gown lends grace to 
the preacher, but coatless he stands — a shirt- 
sleeved messenger of God. 

"Sing No. 31, boys," he says; "if 9 easy 
and it's a good one. Let her go 1 " 

" Alas and did my Saviour bleed. 
And did my sovereign die ? " 

The hymn is old and the boys welcome it 
lusdly. The music lacks in sweetness : in 
volume it abounds. 

" You can do better. Hit it harder on the 
next verse." 

They do ; they shout it forth in full voice, 
pleased with the song, glad for the privilege 
of singing. Then the chorus : " At the cross, 
at the cross, where I first saw the light," shakes 
the bunk house and wanders over the far 
reaches of the night-bound forest. In our 
fashionable churches trained voices blend in 
superb harmony; but this is the music of 
songless lives. 



»i by Google 



82 The Parish of The Pines 

Scripture is read or recited, for the dim 
lanterns make reading difficult Then comes 
the sermon, plain and forceful m condemna- 
tion and help. Do the lumberjacks listen 
respectfully? They have been feeding on 
husks, and here is a table spread with bread. 
They have known the companionship of swine 
in the form of men, of vampires who resem- 
bled women ; they have wanted love and 
have found lust, and the story presented is of 
a better life, a cleaner world, and love that 
knows no selfishness. They have dreamed 
of heaven while living on the borders of hell, 
and the story of the minister brings the 
dreams near enough to grasp. The camp 
missionaries are neither fanatical nor sancti- 
monious, yet fearless and tender. Cutting, 
bruising sentences, denunciations that bum 
and scar, flow in volcanic heat from their 
lips ; but keeping pace with the blunt in- 
vective is the tender passion of wholesome 
love. 

I well remember a sermon Higgins 
preached on the Prodigal Son ; but it can- 
not be reproduced without the environment. 
It suited the hearers ; the brand of the iar 
country was on their cheeks. It was too 
plain for a city gathering and would have 
emptied a staid church where fashion decrees 



»i by Google 



The Gospel in the Shacks 83 

that truth must be carefully handled and pre- 
sented in choice verbiage. Figures of speech 
had little place in it ; of poetry it had none 
save direct simplicity; it was unadorned 
Anglo-Saxon in the crash and clang of 
strength, the beat of a powerful sea on a 
rock-ribbed shore. But h'om beginning to 
end ran the clearly discerned cord of love 
that makes even censure tender and direct 
blame compassionate. To quote a lumber- 
jack's description : " He showed us oiu- dirt 
and gave us the love of God for a wash." 

Here are some extracts, from memory : 

" One of the boys stayed at home and one 
left the homestead. Now it wasn't the fellow 
who stayed at home that the father was wor- 
rying about, but the fellow who packed his 
'turkey' and went to 'blow his stake.' 
You lumberjacks are in that yoimgster's 
place and the old folks are wondering where 
you are and what you are doing. Because 
a man leaves home it isn't necessary to go 
to hell ; but the chances are greater that he'll 
land there if he cuts out all the ties and mem- 
ories." 

Then came the story of his own home 
leaving and how mother watched him until 
the turn of the road hid him from view. 

" That mother's prayers have followed me 



»i by Google 



84 The Parish of The Pines 

through life. My story is yours with the 
names changed. Write to the mother 
to-night. . . . 

" Because the fellow had money he soon 
had friends; but there never was a friend 
worth having who was made or bought by 
money. This young fellow in the parable 
reminds me of a lumberjack coming down 
river in the spring and landing in Bemidji or 
Deer River. Men who never heard of him 
claim his acquaintance at once ; the barkers 
from the dens wait for him at the trains to 
give him the glad hand ; he has friends 
galore — he has money. But they bleed him 
to a hoe finish as they did the prodigal in 
the Bible. The same gang that sent the 
prodigal to the hogs dump you fellows in 
the 'snake room.' There are saloon men 
in the logging towns who have your wages 
figured up already and they chuckle as they 
toast their shins at the base-burner, thinking 
what a good time they'll have when the boys 
come down in the spring. Don't think you 
are working for yourselves : the saloon bunch 
cash your checks and bank your coin. 

" Some of the men in the saloon business 
came to these parts when I did and were £is 
poor as I am ; now they live in the finest 
houses in the North and eat the best the land 



»i by Google 



The Gospel in the Shacks 85 

provides. Their wives are dressed in silks 
and glisten with the jewels you earned — but 
you fellows still wear coarse socks and haven't 
a cent in your jeans. Were you ever invited 
to these homes you built for the gamblers, 
saloonmeo and brothel-keepers ? Were you 
ever introduced to these wives you dressed 
in silks and jewels? No: and you never 
will be. They don't want you — it's your 
cash they're Etfter. That's the treatment the 
prodigal got : that's the way they treat the 
lumberjack to-day." 

" Right you are, Higgins I " commented a 
woodsman admiringly, 

" Bill ought to know I He's been there I " 
came a voice from the rear ; and the camp 
roared. 

"The prodigal's money didn't last long ; 
but I think he didn't blow it all at one shot 
as you fellows do. But they probably short- 
changed him, like they do in Leecher's place 
(the name was given) ; and if he was slow in 
letting go his wad they probably ' rolled ' him 
for the cash as many of you fellows have been 
robbed in Chance's and Boozeman's and 
Tipple's down the line." Higgins fearlessly 
named the saloons and the audience nodded 
agreement. " He went broke," continued the 
preacher, "and asked for a lift, but, those 



»i by Google 



86 The Parish of The Pines 

fellows weren't in the lifting business. Their 
business was to help him to spend. Do you 
remember when you were spent you tried to 
make a raise from the chap whose till held your 
money and he gave you a hunch to go up 
river and earn more ? The prodigal was in 
the same boat ; and they said to him : ' Go 
up river, old man, it's the husks and the hogs 
for you now.' 

" But while the men who rob and spoil will 
not give you a hand the Father will. In the 
father's house the prodigal found a welcome, 
clean clothes, clean food and clean love.'* 
Then came the gospel message, full of cheer 
and loving hope — the story of the crucified 
d3nng for the lost, the homestead open and 
Almighty help given unstintedly. It was a 
homely sermon, a plain message, a description 
of life they understood too well because they 
had experienced it Many a head bowed in 
shame as the story proceeded. It was a tale, 
not of the time of Christ, but taken from their 
own lives, and when the preacher spoke of 
the loving Father there was expectancy in 
the hard faces of the auditors. 

After this sermon on a former occasion a 
young man came to Higgins. The talk had 
awakened a longing for real love ; he was 
tired of the bitter way. 



»i by Google 



The Gospel in the Shacks 87 

" Pilot," he said, " I want to pray lor my- 
self. Tell me how." 

■ "Come on, my boy I" The preacher swung 
his anu across the youngster's shoulders. 
" We'll pray together under the pines." 

Beneath the green trees on the frozen snow 
they knelt and the Ever- Approachable heard 
and answered. The next day the lad wrote 
to his mother, who had not heard from him 
for months, telling of the new hope that 
possessed him. When Higgins received her 
letter of gratitude and read : " For this my 
son was dead and is alive again, he was lost 
and is found," he saw a new figure in the 
pEirable — it was the prodigal's mother. 

There is also the inddent of John McCradie, 
a boy of good antecedents who promised 
well. His parents, looking to the future, sent 
him to a prominent Canadian college. But 
John fell into evil ways and by the end of his 
sophomore year had succeeded in shaming 
his parents and disgracing himself. He 
thought the matter over" and quietly disap- 
peared, leaving no clue to his purposes or 
destination. In a Minnesota logging camp, 
forty miles from a railway, young McCradie 
obtained work as a cookee, where his days 
passed in washing dishes, feeding the hungry 



»i by Google 



88 The Parish of The Pines 

fires and more hungry lumberjacks. To all 
appearances John McCradie was like the rest 
of his associates, profligate and willful : but his 
conscience would not sleep. Higgins came 
to the inland camp to preach and the cookee 
went to hear him. The service promised an 
hour's diversion. Frank Higgins, however, 
has an uncomfortable way of making his 
message personal. There may be a hundred 
men in the audience, but Higgins cannot 
talk to the mass : he talks to a hundred 
individuals aod finds the joints in the har- 
ness. 

McCradie was sore in spots after the Pilot's 
talk. He went back to the cook-shack bear- 
ing with him a resurrected collection of reso- ■ 
lutions. McCradie and the cook (a sensible 
fellow despite his indulgences with the bottle) 
taJked over life's possibilities until the low 
hour of midnight The next day a conspicu- 
ous new sign, " No Swearing Allowed in This 
Room," caught the eyes of the jacks as they 
entered for breakfast The jacks spelled out 
the lettering, looked at each other incredu- 
lously, then fell to the food, wondering what 
had bewitched the kitchen crew that so neces- 
sary an accomplishment should be in ill-re- 
pute. The missionary also saw the sign and 
it seemed like Luther's theses on the door of 



»i by Google 



The Gospel in the Shacks 89 

Wittenberg — the promise of another reforma- 
tion. To Higgins the cookee told his story 
and the kindly Pilot led him into the larger 
life made possible through Jesus Christ. ■ In 
the presence of the cook and his other assist- 
ant John McCradie made his profession of 
allegiance : " From this day I am going to 
live a Christian life." 

" Shake, John, shake I " heartily cried the 
cook ; " it's a good move ; it won't hurt you 
a damned bit." 

" Amen ! " echoed the preacher. " Drop a 
letter to the home folk, John ; it will be good 
news to them." 

After the meeting, when the shack is 
lighted only by the stray gleams that steal 
through the chinks in the stove, some of the 
men talk to the minister of their far-off homes 
and the loved ones not seen for years. By 
the burning fire in the dark bunk house many 
a long closed heart has surrendered to God. 
Sometimes a man invites the preacher to 
sleep with him in his bunk. Since in most 
camps the missionary is generously accorded 
the privileges of the office, the invitation of 
the lumberjack is not alluring, but is never 
refused. The missionary knows that the re- 
quest is due to some spiritual difficulty and 



»i by Google 



90 The Parish of The Pines 

that in the darkness and quiet he will be 
privileged to help a burdened soul. 

That sweet old ^vourite hymn, the song 
of home and prayer-meeting, the source of 
comfort in the house of mourning, is the 
favourite in the camps — "Jesus Lover of My 
Soul." These unloved men of the distant 
places love the hymn which speaks of the 
tender Christ opening His bosom to the out- 
casts. Its plaintive melody appeals and they 
sing it with the spirit of those who long for 
sympathy and help. The night before, upon 
one occasion, they had sung it over and over 
again, the whole camp joining in the praise. 
After breakfast the men went to the bunk 
house to wait for the word of the " push " 
ordering them to " the works." While they 
waited a rich tenor voice struck up the 
hyom, 

" Jesus lover of my soul, 
Let me to thy bosom fly I " 



One by one the men joined in and the solo 
passed into a chorus of a hundred voices. 
Out through the twilight the melody rolled, 
waking the sleeping pines, crossing frozen 
lakes. The men in the stables, harnessing 
their horses, heard the song and softly 



»i by Google 



The Gospel in the Shacks 91 

whistled it ; the cook, busy with the pots and 
pans, hummed it in unison and the swearing 
cookee closed his profane mouth and listened 
in astonished silence. Over in the office 
where the officials slept, the song caused 
silent amazement, for it was unlike the morn- 
ing hour when oaths and curses break the 
stillness. 

" Other refuge have I none, 
Hangs my helpless soul oa Thee," 



sang the men, unconscious of aught save the 
song. 

" Leave, oh, leave mc not alone " — 

and it came from the hearts of those who 
knew the weight of lonely weeks and 
months. 

The Sky Pilot in the office turned his face 
to the wall and prayed while they sang. 

" All out I " cried the " push." 

From the shack streamed the men singing 
the song of comfort Into groups they 
separated, each going his appointed way, 
but the hymn continued in all parts of the 
forest undl the sweet melody died to tender 
murmurs and was lost in the distant ever- 
greens. In all that North Star State no hap- 



»i by Google 



92 The Parish of The Pines 

pier body of men went forth to toil, for with 
them went the spirit of the song. 

Sometimes disturbances mar the meetings, 
but not so h'equently as in the early days. 
The mission is better understood and the 
realization of its value has wrought a change 
in sentiment But when Mr. Higgins first 
began he found it necessary to use a little 
" muscular Christianity " to assist in regu- 
lating the deportment of the gatherings. 

A " top-loader," partly drunk and having 
no relish for anything savouring of Protestant- 
ism, disturbed the meeting with profane re- 
marks. 

" This is our church, boys, the only church 
we have." The voice of Higgins was low 
and sad. 

While the crew sang the minister tried to 
silence the disturber but was unsuccessful. 
Spiritual and militant religion blend in 
Higgins and the present case invited militant 
treatment It got it. With a rush surprising 
in suddenness — for large bodies Bse supposed 
to move slowly and Higgins weighs two 
hundred pounds — the preacher was on the 
disturber, who, a moment later, lay half 
buried in a snow-drift. 

The prone man brushed the snow from 



»i by Google 



The Gospel in the Shacks 93 

his face, looked at the preacher and slowly 
drawled his surprise : 

" Say, Mr. Higgins, what church d' you 
belong to ? " 

" This church / " Higgins pointed to the 
bunk bouse. " If you want to worship with 
us, come in and behave." 

Where a camp is near a village, alcohol is 
easy to obtain, and Sunday, being a day of 
rest, becomes a day of carousal. There were 
several camps near Island Lake Village, and 
on the Sunday of Frank Higgins' visit the 
boys were "tanking up." The spirit of 
whiskey showed itself at the afternoon meet- 
ing with many disturbances. One intoxi- 
cated man was finally thrown out by the 
minister and affairs moved more smoothly 
afterwards. An hour later Higgins was in 
the village of Island Lake and the woodsman 
who had been ejected came staggering up to 
him, accompanied by a score of his mates, 
also under the influence of liquor. 

" Are you the blank preacher who fired me 
out of camp F " asked the man of the sudden 
exit. He was evidentiy looking for trouble. 

" I'm the man," replied Higgins, drawing 
back his broad shoulders and advandog ; 
" what have you to say against it "i " 



»i by Google 



94 The Parish of The Pines 

As steadily as his unsteady legs would 
allow, the lumberjack looked over the 
minister and suddenly changed his mind 
about the intended row. 

" Not a word, preacher ; not a word. I 
ain't got a word to say again' it," he mumbled 
bibulously. " I just wanted to know if you 
was the man — that's all." He looked admir- 
ingly at the strong arms. " You're all right. 
'Twas a blank good throw. Don't you ever 
think I've got anything again' it" 

Turning to the other lumberjacks, Mr. 
Higgins said : 

"Boys, did you ever know Higgins to 
do you a bad turn? Yet for the sport of 
the thing you get this poor drunken fel- 
low to cause trouble. Is that a proper re- 
turn?" 

The men were ashamed and walked away. 
That night in a near-by camp almost every 
man of them came to the preacher after the 
meeting. 

" Forget it, Pilot," said the spokesman. 
" We're ashamed of ourselves, but you know 
it was whiskey done it. Whiskey's your 
only enemy in these woods. Forget it and 
shake." 

"Thanks, boys. I have already. Give 
me your hands." 



»i by Google 



The Gospel in the Shacks 95 

The day after the meeting is the time for 
personal work. While the service is in prog- 
ress the evangelist singles out the men most 
receptive and later joins them at their work. 
Here is where the finely developed body 
comes into play for the King. Workmen 
admire those who are capable in their own 
line, and Frank Higgins can swing an az or 
pull a saw with the best ; and while he works 
he talks of Him whose messenger be is. In 
this way he became acquainted with " Old 
Grouchy." During the meeting the old man 
had sat in his bunk with a nondescript dog in 
his lap. Loneliness was stamped on his deep- 
lined face. The others sang ; he was silent. 

"Don't you sing?" the missionary had 
asked, handing him a book. 

" Naw I None o' your blank business I " 
bellowed the man in a scarcely understand- 
able snarl. 

The next day Higgins joined " Old 
Grouchy," the road-monkey, at his work. 

" Good-moraing," hailed the Pilot 

"Momin'," snawled "Old Grouchy," in a 
non-committal tone. 

"Your roads are almost perfect," said 
Higgins, sparring for an opening. 

"Bad; infernally bad," was the growled 
reply. 



»i by Google 



96 The Parish of The Pines 

"Like the job?" asked the preacher, to 
encourage conversation. 

" Yes ; I like it like the damned like their 
lodgings 1" burst out the road-monkey, 
" What is it to you ? You can't change it." 

Higgins was discouraged. What was the 
use of trying to help a fellow like this ? Be- 
fore the preacher could make reply the yellow 
dog turned from its pursuit of pine squirrels 
and ran to him for attention. It was " just 
dog," but the " road-monkey's " eyes fell on 
it lovingly. 

"A good friend of yours?" said the Pilot. 

" The only friend I have." The snarl was 
gone ; the tone was soft, reflective. 

Higgins talked of his own dog team, the 
faithfulness of the dumb creatures, their 
intelligence and companionship. "Old 
Grouchy " joined the conversation, which 
drifted gradually to matters more personal, 
and soon the whole story of the man's life 
was told and the cause of his cynicism bared. 
It was a story of starding disappointment, of 
a home wrecked through unfaithfulness. No 
man could hear it and remain untouched. 

" No wonder your world is darkened," said 
the preacher sadly ; " if I had your experi- 
ence I doubt if I'd feel as I do to-day." 

The missionary tried to lead the old man 



»ibvGooglc'» 



The Gospel in the Shacks 97 

into the brighter paths of peace ; but noth- 
ing appealed to the sad soul of the man. 
The Gospel revived no hope. The sun was 
set. The gloomy curtains of night covered 
all. When Mr. Higgins went back in later 
days the road-monkey listened attentively to 
the presentation of the Gospel, caressed bis 
yellow dog and seemed to wonder if it were 
possible that the great God cared. " Sing, 
brother 1 " said the missionary. The old man 
shook his head. He would not sing. Nay I 
he could not His heart-strings were with- 
ered ; melody had left him through the faith- 
lessness of a woman. 

But in after days he found a quiet comfort 
when in town in visiting the missionary's 
home and playing for hours with the mis- 
sionary's little Marguerite. 

It looks like barren ground, this field of the 
pineries, where men are hardened in muscle 
and morals by the rough labours and rougher 
indulgences of their lives, where sin and vice 
are very familiar and ethical practice strange, 
yet the seed long dormant finds root and 
comes to fruitage in the fullness of time. It 
was so with Billy the Canadian. Billy had 
often attended the meetings but showed no 
outward results. A broken back sent him to 

Upl:«l by Google 



98 The Parish of The Pines 

the hospital where a missionary visited him. 
There was no hope for Billy's recovery, so 
they toolc him to his Canadian home to die 
among Icinsmen. There in the long days of 
pain and waiting the seed bore its Emit 
Billy the Canadian passed over the river 
lighted by the presence of Him who said, " I 
am the light of the world." 

In February of last year Mr. Higgins and 
the writer preached in Haley's camp on the 
Duluth and Iron Range. The crew consisted 
of one hundred and sixty men in which the 
following nationalities took the lead : Fin- 
landers, Polanders, Austrians, Swedes and 
Americans. The men listened with interest 
although some of them mended their clothes 
while we preached. Two days later, on a 
train, we met Mr. Haley. " I had a. big sur- 
prise yesterday," he said ; " for the first time 
since I have tieen in these woods I found that 
lumberjacks are interested in religion. Out 
at the worlds I found the jacks discussing the 
meeting you fellows held in the bunk house 
the night before ; later, at the lunch-ground, 
the topic was religion, and down at the skid- 
way they were going over the same thing. 
It was a new view to me, I tell you, if your 
work does nothing more than furnish a de- 
cent topic for conversation it accomplishes a 



»i by Google 



The Gospel in the Shacks 99 

great deal. I wish you and your men would 
come oftener. It helps ; and anything that 
gives a boost to the awful propositioQ we 
loggers have on our hands is a thing to be 
encouraged. Why, even the scaler, who 
thinks he is something of an infidel, admitted 
that the work w£is doing good ! Come again t 
You're welcome any time 1 " 

The far-seeing, unprejudiced loggers, men 
of practical type, are lending encouragement 
to the mission ; where one opposes twenty 
are ready to give words of cheer and to open 
the doors on which they have placed a wel- 
come. One man, when asked for permission 
to hold services in his camps, said : " I want 
to tell you, Mr. Higgins, that I am superin- 
tendent of this company because of your 
work in the woods. Years ago I was aim- 
less and wasteful but I heard a word from 
you that changed it all and I am glad to give 
the other boys a chance to hear the same 
thing that made a man of me. Preach here 
and send your men, for we all need the up- 
lift of the Gospel." While Mr. Higgins 
preached in a certain camp there was a won- 
drous quiet, for the Spirit of God brooded 
there and men were silent in His presence. No 
one was surprised when a wo odsman walked 
up to the preacher and s^bt^'^f^itv Uig^tTts^ 




loo The Parish of The Pines 

want you to pray for me right now." The 
sermon closed without another word and 
prayer took its piace. When the minister 
closed his prayer, the man said : " I want to 
pray for myself," and in the presence of the 
listening camp he made his petition for pardon. 

Turning to his bunk mates, he said : " This 
is the end of my old life. In the future I am 
for Jesus Christ." The next evening the 
campmen received a. new idea of Christian 
service. The convert took out his violin and 
began to play "Jesus Lover of My SouL" 
The lumberjacks were interested in this, but 
astonished when the convert drew out his 
Bible and read a chapter. Astonished at the 
reading, they were dumbfounded when he 
announced that he was going to give them 
" a talk." He had learned the principles of 
the Scriptures in his youth, and now, in the 
hght of a new experience which made it 
doubly precious to him, he explained the 
Word of God. Through the winter he con- 
tinued to hold meetings with the men and in 
all the North woods there was no prouder 
camp, for it claimed to be the only one having 
a settled pastor. 

"The groves were God's first temples." 
To-day, in the green solitudes, under the un- 
changing pines, men are worshipping. 



»i by Google 



READIN' MATTER 

THE long winter evenings and the un- 
broken hours of Sunday had little 
to relieve their monotony until 
Frank Higgins filled his "turkey" with old 
magazines and distributed them among the 
boys. He had noticed that amusements were 
few; time had to be "killed" — not used — 
and the blessed hours of leisure were profit- 
less. He therefore wrote to the churches 
asking for old magazines and the response 
was generous. Several tons came to Be- 
midji, weli enough selected material. The 
magazines went into a hundred camps that 
winter and by their resurrected usefulness 
brightened many an hour. Great good has 
come from this feature ; minds have been 
given another vent : indecent conversations, 
too common and too continuous, have largely 
passed away ; new topics suggested by the 
magazines are discussed ; and occasionally 
some one will read aloud that all may share 
a choice bit of amusement or strange de- 



»i by Google 



102 The Parish of The Pines 

scriptioii. Even the illiterate find recreation 
in the illustrations. 

Before the literature came there were few 
tables in the bunk houses ; but after its intro- 
duction they were recognized as necessities 
and many of the contractors provided them 
for the convenience of the reading men. In 
a Northern camp, which he was visiting for 
the iirst time, Mr. Higgins distributed the 
magazines after the service, and immediately 
there was a rush for the wannigan to buy 
lanterns. The scanty stock soon exchanged 
bands and the demand continued. 

" What's up in the bunk house ? " asked 
the clerk of the Sky Pilot. " Are you trying 
to turn the bunk shack into a night school ? 
I've sold every lantern I've got and the jacks 
are yelling for more." 

" I've distributed a few magazines so the 
boys can read something helpful," said the 
minister. 

" Lumberjacks improving their minds ! " 
sarcastically returned the clerk, " This neck 
of the woods will have a university extension 
course next, if this keeps up." 

" You surely don't object to the boys read- 
ing?" asked Higgins. 

" Not at all," replied the clerk sulkily ; 
"but you might have remembered that a 



»i by Google 



Rcadin' Matter 103 

clerk has lots of time on his hands and have 
left a few of your mind-improvers in the of- 
fice." 

"Well, if that's where the shoe pinches, 
help yourself," said the minister, pointing to 
his pack. 

When a box of magazines is opened after 
service, the men who have gone to bed arise 
and greedily take their share. These papers 
are passed from one to another, being read 
and reread, until worn out with much han- 
dling. God only can number the minds that 
have found refreshment and rest through the 
gifts that cost so little I Short, helpful tracts, 
carefully selected, are likewise carried by the 
workers and thousands of the Gospel of John 
are given to the men. Last year about ten 
tons of magazines and nearly two thousand 
Testaments were distributed in a hundred 
and fifty camps. Martin Johnson, a camp 
missionary, gave a " little John " to a cook 
who became quite interested in the evangel- 
ist's description of our Saviour's life. " Here's 
a good thing," he thought, and decided to 
pass the contents along while retaining the 
volume. I suppose the cook had heard of 
family worship, or it may be that his origi- 
nality was not limited to cakes and " biscuit 
shootin'." 



»i by Google 



104 The Parish of The Pines 

On New Year's morning, 191 1, when the 
men assembled for breakfast no food was 
served. Instead, the cook stepped to the 
head of the table and began to speak : 

" I've just got onto a pretty good thing in 
the readin' line. Somethin' new an' up to 
date. A little book by a fellow named John. 
I don't know his last name ; it just says 'by 
John.' I thought I'd open the new year by 
readin' a little from this John so you fellows 
can improve your minds and morals, if you 
happen to have any of either left" 

He opened the book and began to read : 
" In the beginning was the Word, and the 
Word W£t5 with God, and the Word was 
God." The hungry crew was amazed into 
speechlessness. The cook continued, uncon- 
scious of the mental commotion his strange 
act excited. The men expected only pro- 
fanity and food from him ; — and he was act- 
ually reading the Bible I Then murmurings 
arose and grew louder until the voice of the 
reader was lost in the hubbub. The cook, 
however — always an autocrat at the table — 
was not to be silenced in his own domain. His 
wrath kindled. Stepping over to the meat 
block he grasped a butcher knife and faced 
the crew with the Word in one hand and the 
knife in the other. 



»i by Google 



Readin' Matter 105 

" The first bloat that interrupts the readin' 
will lose his mutt This pian John knows a 
thing* or two an' you've got to hear what 
John says. Now listen 1 " 

The reading was uninterrupted and the 
chapter was finished before any man tasted 
food. 



»i by Google 



DC 

m THE GREAT WHITE SILENCE 

THE loose ^ow descended and fell 
in showers upon us whenever we 
touched the overhanging boughs; 
under foot the white cover lay deep and un- 
broken. It was bitter cold. Fortunately 
there was no wind. Higgins plodded heav- 
ily under the burden of his pack and I with 
a tighter one followed in his footsteps. 

" Enjoying it ? " he asked, pausing in the 
going. 

I did not speak ; it was too cold to answer. 

"We're going through life for the last 
time and we're having a dandy time," he 
said in answer to my scowl. " The fellows 
in the city have to go to the art galleries to 
see poor pictures of this ; and painted canvas 
doesn't give them an appetite." Higgins 
pointed to the snow-dressed pines beautiful 
in their God-made toilet — a landscape of 
crystal and green lit by a cloudless sun. 

In spite of cold I smiled a reply. 

" If I were a city pastor I couldn't afford a 
private park like this. Isn't that Norway 



»i by Google 



In the Great White Silence 107 

ahead enough to make a man thank God for 
his eyesight? It's a suggestion to live right. 
Sometimes the trail between camps is long, 
yet I always enjoy it, and when I get to the 
end there are the boys — poor lonely fellows, 
that perhaps I can help." 

It is always the boys with Higgins ; in them 
he gets his greatest joy. 

" I get a hundred times more out of this 
than I deserve or put into it." Higgins was 
tightening his shoulder straps. " Aren't the 
boys good to me? Did you notice old Bill, 
the shanty boss, whisper to me at breakfast? 
He said he'd saved two hundred dollars and 
had it in the bank. It makes me happy to 
think that old Bill is two hundred dollars 
away from the poorhouse." 

The man's optimism was contagious. la 
spite of the hard travelling I found myself 
looking at the hills in his park and at the 
man whose uncomplaining philosophy made 
their beauty visible while his altruism covered 
the snow-clogged trail and robbed hard 
labour of its struggles and aches. 

Beautiful is the deep mantle of pinery 
snow. Nor soot nor stain mars the bosom 
of the earth ; only the long stretch of " the 
white silence," reaching ever northward, is 



»i by Google 



lo8 The Parish of The Pines 

before one. But the work of the missiona- 
ries is increased by the heavy snow, and the 
delight of the forest is often lost in the heart- 
breaking toil of the journeys. Put the " tur- 
key " on your back and try the trudge. See 
if romance does not ^depart as weariness 
enters the limbs. Step forward in the early 
morning through the new-fallen snow. The 
north wind is visiting the forest and his 
breath penetrates even your furry clothing. 
Go on 1 The camp that ends the journey is 
only the little distance of ten long, lonely, 
huoianless miles ! The pack may be heavy ; 
but soon you are transporting a mountain 
that grows to an endless range of Himalayas. 
Pleasure departs and the hard spirit of 
fatigue is your blighting company. Every 
step is an effort ; every blast of the wind 
reaches the marrow ; the exposed face feels 
like cold onyx and the wind-inflamed eyes 
look through frozen lashes for the smoke ol 
the cook-house above the murmuring trees. 
The finger-tips protest against the numbing 
cold and the arms swing to force the frozen 
blood to the pained extremities. Mile after 
mile, endlessly the trail stretches on ; mile 
after mile the weary feet drag their heavy 
burden ; mile after mile the pain and sufier- 
ing continue. 



»i by Google 



In the Great White Silence 109 

At last, yonder in the green sea of Norway 
lances, the column of smoke rises like a bea- 
con to tell of warmth and food and the safe 
companionship of men. The view of the 
camp stimulates. Moses saw the Promised 
Land from a distance, but the sight of that 
rude collection of clay-chinked log shacks 
means more to you, tired and almost frozen, 
than the land beyond the muddy Jordan did 
to the writer of the Pentateuch. It means a 
chance to rest, to warm — and, to the mission- 
ary, who is daily journeying through the 
ice-bound forest, the privilege of preaching 
the unsearchable riches of Jesus Christ to the 
rough-hewn, sin-marked men of the pineries. 
Minnesota's winters are severe. The mer- 
cury often registers thirty degrees below 
zero, not seldom reaching a lower mark. In 
early November the ground freezes solid and 
the ice remains in the lakes until late in 
April. The impassable swamps become the 
winter highways and the lakes a glassy road- 
bed. 

Early in his camp operations, Frank Hig- 
gins secured a team of Saint Bernard dogs 
for transportation purposes. The idea was 
practical. It furnished easy means of loco- 
motion ; the difficulties of stabling were 
wmplified and the cost of food was almost 



»i by Google 



no The Parish of The Pines 

nothing. Where the run was between points 
on the raihoads the sled and dogs could ride 
in the baggage car. On the rough forest 
trails, the team proved good travellers, beings 
none the worse for thirty or forty miles a day. 
Flash and Spark assisted the logging-camp 
mission into easier paths : for the lumber- 
jacks are passionately fond of animals, and 
the advent of the fine team made a favour- 
able impression. Many of the bunk-house 
doors are secured by a sliding latch. Against 
such the missionary drove his'team and with 
his whole equipment entered the sleeping 
apartments. The sudden arrival aroused in- 
terest, and while the men crowded around 
the handsome dogs, Higgins explained his 
business and announced the time of meet- 
ing. 

On a journey from Northome to Interna- 
tional Fails, Frank Higgins lost his way in 
the Little Fork country. At nightfall he 
built a fire against a pine stump and collected 
wood to replenish it He had with him a 
rabbit, and this he divided with his dogs. It 
was the only food since morning. Sweet 
green boughs of pine furnished a bed above 
the snow ; the robes from the sled added 
comfort, and the closely pressing dogs helped 
to keep out the cold. During the night the 



»i by Google 



In the Great White Silence 1 1 1 

howling of timber wolves awakened man 
and dogs ; in the dark circle around the 
temporary camp could be seen the fire-balls 
of their eyes, and the distinct voices chilled 
the listener. The missionary arose and re- 
built his fire, and as it broke into a cheery 
blaze the disappointed wolves sent back a 
more distant sound, until the silence of the 
forest resumed its interrupted reign. Early 
next morning Higgins was on his way : the 
lost trail was found and he arrived at Litde 
Forks, where he conducted the first religious 
service ever held in that place. 

On another occasion, Mr. Higgins, blmded 
by a sudden snow-storm, lost all sense of 
direction, and spent the day wandering 
through a muskeg. Towards evening, the 
worst of the blizzard having passed, he found 
the trail and completed the journey. After 
supper he carried food to his dogs, but they 
refused to eat. The day had been hard and 
the missionary thought that they were fagged 
through overexertion. Before retiring he 
again tried them with food but they did not 
respond. Higgins arose early to visit them. 
On the way to the bam he met the hotel 
pro prietor, whose face was red with anger. 

"Is'them blank dogs youm?" burst out 
the man. 



»i by Google 



112 The Parish of The Pines 

" They are," replied Higgins. 

"Then cash up for the pork the brutes 
downed while you was at supper. The 
cannibals swiped half a hog an' ate it I 
ain't got nothin' but eggs an' salt-horse to 
give the boarders to-day." 

While the enraged hotel-keeper narrated 
his tale of woe a load of anxiety rolled from 
the preacher's mind and he laughed heartily, 
to the intense astonishment of his excited 
auditor. 

In the month of January, 1906, Frank Hig- 
g^ns, while crossing Red Lake, was caught 
in a sudden blizzard. The unopposed wind 
swept down the miles of icy surface filling 
the air with choking snow. The distant 
shore disappeared and all directions seemed 
alike. Night came on but the darkness 
scarcely added to the helplessness of the 
wanderer. To the Father who ruleth the 
rain of summer and snow of winter, he sent 
his prayer for help ; and what man could not 
do was done by the leading of God. He 
who guides the stars in their courses led the 
lost to the wooded shore. No human habita- 
tion was near ; neither did Higgins know the 
direction of the nearest village. For hours 
he wandered in the forest, and near midnight 



»i by Google 



In the Great White Silence 113 

came to an Indian's cabin where he was 
kindly received. When the fomily learned 
that he was a minister, the old squaw placed 
a Bible in his hands and requested him to 
read and pray. About twenty years before 
this. Dr. Jos. A. Gilfillan, an Episcopal mis* 
siooary, had given her the Bible. With the 
Indian family Higgins thanked the God of 
all peoples for His impartial care and good- 
ness. 

On another occasion when returning from 
a long woods trip, Higgins crossed a frozen 
lake in the teeth of a fierce wind. With 
difficulty he made his way against the beat- 
ing gusts and when he reached the sawmill 
at the head of the lake he instantly fell asleep 
from cold and exhaustion. The engineer saw 
the collapse and heroically dashed a pail of 
water over the sleeping man, bringing him 
back to consciousness. In his frozen condi- 
tion sleep would have resulted in death. Al- 
though the missionaries are mostly expe- 
rienced woodsmen, well acquainted with the 
trackless forest, yet the blizzard drives many 
of them into unknown paths. Jack McCall, 
who serves the camps around Cloquet, Min- 
nesota, was lost last winter for several hours 
and when he found shelter he was eight miles 
oS his tnuL In the winter of 1909 Rev. Ole 



»i by Google 



1 14 The Parish of The Pines 

O. Fugleskjel, a Lutheran minister, on liis way 
from Silver Creek to Clemenston, lost the 
path in a storm and his frozen body was re- 
covered several days afterwards. A North- 
ern blizzard is no plaything. It obliterates 
all tracks, blinds the wayfarer and becomes a 
mockery and a menace. Reilly, the lumber- 
jack, knew all this and worried about his 
friend Higgins who had left camp before the 
unexpected storm arrived. The night was 
nearing. The way to Camp i was new to 
the preacher and R«IIy feared he might not 
reach his destination. Lighting his lantern 
the lumberjack started through tiie darken- 
ing forest to render aid in case he should be 
needed. But Higgins had arrived safely, 
held his service and was retiring when Reilly . 
made the camp. 

" Why did you come out a night like this ? " 
asked Higgins. 

" Oh, I thought you might miss your way 
and maybe I could be useful to you. You 
went out of your way once for me," said 
Reilly simply. 

The foreman invited Reilly to stay through 
the night, but he refused all invitations, 
and retraced the snow-covered trail, happy 
in the consciousness that the Pilot was 
safe. 



»i by Google 



In the Great White Silence 1 1 5 

The changing weather is the g^reatest 
danger to the lonely traveller but occasion- 
ally, near the Canadian boundary, the timber 
wolves place life in jeopardy. One Saturday 
night John Somberger arrived at a new camp 
on the Canadian Northern Railway, where 
he expected to preach, but the foreman re- 
fused him permission. Since he could not 
accomplish his mission, Somberger would 
not remain over night and set out for the 
nearest camp, six miles away. Just beyond 
the clearing the wolves took up his trail and 
followed the solitary traveller. Howling 
wolves were no novelty to him and he gave 
them litde attention until they showed signs 
of attacking. Tearing birch bark from the 
trees he made torches and under the protec- 
tion of the blaze returned to camp where he 
borrowed a lantern. On the second attempt 
he travelled three miles before the wolves 
again became troublesome. But they grew 
accustomed to the light and became bolder 
as their numbers increased. Only the con- 
stant swinging of the lantern kept them from 
attacking him. It would probably have gone 
ill with Somberger if he had not providen- 
tially come upon a steam log loader in which 
he took refuge. With the watchman he 
spent the night in comfort 



»i by Google 



Ii6 The Parish of The Pines 

A long leaf-shaking blast sounded through 
the morning twilight of the pineries ; it 
echoed in the green dome of the forest, spread 
itself into whispers and became part of the 
great silence imprisoning the North. In re- 
sponse to the cookee's ear-splitting alarm, 
Rev. Frank Higgins sprang from his hay- 
hlled bunk, made his toilet and hastened to 
the cook shack. It was Sunday, a day big 
with opportunity. On other days preaching 
wEis possible only when the men returned in 
the evening : to-day he could preach to three 
camps. He had held service in this camp 
the evening before and at eleven to-day he 
intended to speak in Camp 3, twelve miles 
away. 

As Higgfins left the clearing a lumberjack 
hailed him : 

" Thought I'd walk along, Pilot, for com- 
pany's sake." 

" G!ad to have you, John," returned the 
minister. " How goes it ? " 

" Fine, mighty fine I Haven't tasted a 
drop this winter. Hand over yoiu- pack ; I'm 
out for exercise." 

The lumberjack adjusted the burden to his 
shoulders, remarking : " About fifty pounds, 
ain't it?" 

" Just about," was the reply ; then, in ex- 



»i by Google 



la the Great White Silence 117 

planation : " Hymn-books, Testaments and a 
few necessities." 

The tote-road miles passed quickly under 
the hastening feet, the balsamic air explored 
the deep recesses of the lungs, and the cold 
made their faces tingle. They walked a 
while in silence. 

" Let me take the * turkey.' You make me 
ashamed of myself," said Higgins. " You've 
carried it half-way." 

" See here, Pilot," answered the jack de- 
terminedly, " I land this pack in Camp 3. 
You handed me a big lift when I was down 
and out This is the first chance I've had to 
swamp for you. God knows you done a heap 
for me 1 " 

The picture of a year ago came to Hig- 
gins : a man spent, drunk, filthy, sick from 
knock-out drops, lying in a " snake room," 
dying, for all they cared who had thrown him 
there after robbing him. Higgins had helped 
him up, watched him during the following 
months, and had finally seen him naturalized 
into the kingdom of God. This clean-limbed 
burden-bearer, walking steadily at his side, 
was the former "snake-room" drunkard, 
who, out of gratitude, now carried the mis- 
sionary's pack twelve miles to Camp 3. 

Some of the men in Camp 3 heard the 



»i by Google 



1 18 The Parish of The Pines 

Gospel that day for ihe first time in many 
years. After dioner Higgins shouldered his 
pack and trudged eight miles to Cowan's 
Camp. The audience vas waiting, news of 
the minister's coming having preceded him. 
The hymn of praise awakened the silence of 
the forest and through the profaned bunk 
house rolled the voice of prayer. The Lord 
was in His holy temple and the lumberjacks 
were silent before Him. 

" I'm goin' to write home," said a young 
fellow after the meeting. " The folks don't 
know where I am. Tell me how to get next 
to God. I'm tired of this." 

"Listen, boy," said the Pilot earnestly; 
"only one thing will rest you: give your 
load to Jesus Christ. What was the text?" 

" I will give you rest," repeated the tired 
one. 

" Right 1 Hang on to that and remember 
He still says ' Come.' God bless you, boy. 
I'll pray for you." 

The ten miles to the place of evening serv- 
ice, Campbell's Camp, were weary ones, and 
Higgins was worn when he threw down his 
pack and opened the meeting. Campbell's 
Camp was hallowed that night with its first 
benediction. After the " bull-cook " had ex- 
tinguished the lights many a man examined 



»i by Google 



In the Great White Silence 1 19 

himself under the search-Bght of a new re- 
solve. 

"Tired of your job, Pilot?" asked the 
clerk, as Higgins slowly climbed into the 
hay-filled bunk and drew the horse blankets 
over him. 

" Clerk, I wouldn't exchange my job for 
the best congregation in the land. Think of 
it, clerk I One of the boys carried my pack 
twelve miles to-day I God and the boys are 
too good to me. I wish I could show my 
appreciation more. Wake me early. It's a 
long walk to Camp 9. Good-nighL" 

" Thirty miles to-day to preach to God-for- 
saken lumberjacks," murmured the clerk as 
he blew out the light. " The Sky Pilot has 
something 1 wish I had." 

Higgins was ah-eady asleep. 



»i by Google 



" MUSCtnAR CHRISTIANITY " 

•* Tfc yTUSCULAR Christianity" seems 
I \/ 1 foreign to this matter-of-fact age ; 

-L ▼ -^ it is too militant for our indiffer- 
ence, too strenuous for an apathetic church. 
Nevertheless it belongs to our time, for the 
camp mission work is twofold : Christian and 
muscular, and each phase makes large de- 
mands. Let some one more interested in the 
dead past write the story of the rough, ear- 
nest crusaders, who fought in the name of the 
gentle Christ with blood-letting swords Euid 
flesh-piercing spears. That is a tale distant, 
past ; this narrative is near and present No 
weapon is forged on the anvil for this war- 
fare. Death is not the aim, but life increased 
through the spirit of love. The banner alone 
is the same — The Banner of the Cross. 

Physical fitness, of no common order, is 
required. The Noitherti pineries demand 
strength of limb, endurance and hardiness — 
these are capital and stock in trade. Where 
the frolicsome winds drive the mercury thirty 



»i by Google 




»i by Google 



by Google 



" Muscular Christianity " 121 

or forty degrees below zero, and hold it in 
that low retreat for days, the men must be 
vigorous to stand the taunts of wind and fet- 
tering cold. Lumbering wants no weakling, 
either as pastor or axman. Brain is not de- 
spised, but brawn is honoured and endurance 
Is the ideal of the lumberjack. The city pas- 
tor, in his work for souls, finds head and 
heart predominating ; the logging camp mis- 
sionary realizes that bodily excellence is the 
first essential — heart and bead are secondary 
in the estimation of his parishioners. A 
weakling is piUed, a strong man respected. 
But to strength must be added devotion if a 
man is to win as Christ's messenger. 

It follows that the ministry we look for in 
the city is not asked for in the forest The 
object is the same— the souls of men — but 
the methods and means are not taught by the 
seminaries. The argument of a man who is 
scientific with his fist and nimble of leg is sure 
of a ready reception if he ioves his fellows 
and trusts his God. Physical Christianity is 
being successfully used to point men to 
Christ : not forcing acceptance of His teach- 
ing but using for the King every power He 
has given. Of more value than discussion is 
narrative, and so I present a few plain tales 
of the labours of the missionary and of the 



»i by Google 



/coi 



122 The Parish of The Pines 

fights OQce too commoD in the logging di»< 
trict. 

The winter of 1905 was closing, and the 
Rev, Frank E. Higgins, while making his 
rounds, found himself, after nightfall, in a 
Northern village, which was little more than a 
collection of tar-paper shacks. It claimed a 
population of two himdred. Nine saloons 
ornamented the town. One would search 
long, even in the logging district, for a place 
naore influenced by open sin. At the lunch 
counter in fhe rear of a saloon, the missionary 
must needs take his meal, and the drinking 
woodsmen laughingly invited him to drink 
with them. 

" I'll tell you what I'll do, boys ; if my dog 
will drink the stuff you fellows are imbibing 
I'll join you," said Higgins. 

He called the dog to him ; but on smelling 
the beverage, Bess turned away. 

" Can't do it, boys. I'd hate to set a bad 
example to my dog. She has good sense ; 
you'd better follow her lead." 

'he men enjoyed the incident and the 
tired minister went to his room over the 
saloon, where, despite the noise, he soon fell 
asleep. But shortiy after midnight he was 
awakened. The sound of breaking glass and 
furniture, the curses and cries of men, rang 



»i by Google 



" Muscular Christianity " 123 

through the house. A fight was ia progress. 
No trivial afiair this I It spoke of blood and 
murderous anger. Jumping into his clothing 
the minister rushed into the barroom. Fore- 
man Murrey stood in the middle of the room, 
crazed with whiskey, his powerful frame 
shaking in the exdtement of contest He 
held a heavy chair menacingly above his 
head and at his feet lay three men, prostrated 
by the clumsy weapon. The bartender peeped 
from behind the counter, deathly fear in his 
eyes, and beyond the street door four lumber- 
jacks, ready for further retreat, fearfully 
watched the victor of the battle as he waved 
the chair like a victorious banner. 

" Canada again' the world I The Scotch 
an' nae ithers I " cried the drunken logger in 
fierce delight 

Rushing in, Higgins grabbed the fore- 
man : " Murrey, old man, think what you're 
doing 1 Do you want to be a murderer?" 

" A Hooligan struck me," the man yelled 
fiercely at the remembrance. " Thinlc of a 
Canadian being struck by a Hooligan I It's 
mair nor flesh an' btuid can stan'." The 
foreman stepped towards the door where the 
enemy had retreated, 

" You can't afford to become a criminal 
because a man lost his temper I " cried the 



»i by Google 



124 The Parish of The Pines 

missioDaiy, retaining his hold. " Put down 
your chair and show them that a Scotchman 
can control himself, even ii others can't" 

The appeal to nationality won. Murrey 
watched his friend assist the wounded, mur- 
muring in drunken enjoyment, "The Scotch 
an' nae ithersi" The men in the street 
wisely remained outside until the minister led 
Murrey up-stairs. Then Higgins put the 
fighting foreman to bed and lay down beside 
him, only to be awakened by oaths, screams, 
and the crashing blows of an ax on a near-by 
door. The minister rushed into the hall to 
find the owner of the saloon battering down 
the door of his wife's room and swearing in 
his drunken rage that he would kill her. The 
proprietor had spent the previous afternoon 
disreputably. His wife had followed him 
and had failed in her attempt to bring him 
home. Now, under the spell of liquor, his 
offended dignity sought solace in murder. 
Aided by the bartender, Higgins disarmed 
the saloon-keeper, led him oil to bed and re- 
mained until sleep held him fast 

The next day was the Sabbath. After 
breakfast, the preacher pieced his phonograph 
on the roulette wheel and " Rock of Ages " 
floated through the rum-ladened atmosphere. 
The crowd of loungers increased. When 



»i by Google 



" Muscular Christianity " 125 

" Where is My Wandering Boy To-night ? " 
came to a close, the company vas in re- 
ceptive mood for the searching heart-to-heart 
talk that followed. While this strange service 
continued the proprietor refused all requests 
for drinks and at its close asked Mr. Higgins 
to pray for him. 

Shortly after the affray in the saloon, the 
Sky Pilot visited the camp over which Mur- 
rey was foreman. It was time for the annual 
offerings but Mr. Higgins learned that the 
Sisters of Charity had solicited the crew for 
hospital work that day and he decided to 
def er the request until his next visit. After 
I service he said : " It was my intention to ask 
for the yearly offering to the mission work 
to-night, but since the Sisters have canvassed 
the camp to-day I will not ask your assist- 
ance until later." The preacher had scarcely 
finished the announcement when Murrey, the 
foreman, sprang to his feet 

" Sit dooo. Pilot I " he said. " You dinna 
need to ask ony collection in this shanty. 
We ken a guid thing an' are willin' to pay 
for't. I'll tak' up the collection, though it's 
a new job to me. Shell oot, lads ; remem- 
ber the Lord and Murrey love a cheerfu' 
giver." 

Murrey completed his self-imposed task 



»i by Google 



126 The Parish of The Pines 

and handed the misuonary forty-seven dol- 
. lars and fiity cents. 

The Master's years were hill of minister- 
ingfs — helpful touches, lightened hurdens, 
lifts and gifts of kind assistance. The world 
admires these and watches their reappearance 
in His followers. In the city we hope for 
Christlike help but do not ask for it — having 
often been disappointed. In the woods the 
jacks unsophisticatedly hold to the principle 
that when a man professes Christ he should 
" deliver the goods or freeze up his spiel." 
Not a bad idea after all ! And that was why 
Paddy's chum came to the missionary. 

" Pilot," said he, " I've got a bunky in that 
booze-joint over there, an' the fool is blowin' 
his stake as fast as he can throw it I can't 
land him and if I tried thebarkeep would give 
me a hunch with his boot. Give me a lift" 

" Lead on," said the preacher. " We'll try 
it together." 

In the saloon the crowd mirthfully gorged 
itself with burning liquors. It was a wedding 
of drink and riot Inflamed passion stamped 
its feet joyfully and the care of winter disap- 
peared in the wash of intoxicants. Paddy, 
for whom Higgins sought, led the spenders, 
his liberality knowing neither bounds nor 



»i by Google 



" Muscular Christianity " 127 

distinctions. He staggered to the bar in 
dnmlEen ecstasy : " Bung-swatter, load up 
the house I Hell while the dough lEists 1 
Turn the spicket ; give us a bath 1 " Paddy 
generously emptied bis pockets on the metal 
counter. A roll of bills and a handhil of sil- 
ver were offered in sacrifice. The bartender, 
as high priest of Bacchus, stepped for- 
ward to receive the free-will offering, but the 
hand of Higgins arrived first and covered 
the roll of bills. 

" ril take this for my treat, Paddy," said 
the preacher in quiet, decisive tone. 

" No you don't ! " cried the furious bar- 
tender, rushing to attack the intruder. 

"Stand back I " commanded Higgins. 

The bartender paused. The air was elec- 
tric. The drinks stood on the bar untasted. 
All interest centred in the preacher and bar- 
tender. Then the drink-seller grabbed a 
cudgel and advanced with upraised arm, 
followed by several drinkers. 

" Cut it out, you fools I " cried a big 
lumberjack who sprang to the assistance 
of the missionary. " This is the Pilot, the 
friend of every lumberjack. The guy that 
tackles him takes me on and some others." 

The bartender suddenly lost his aggres- 



»i by Google 



128 The Parish of The Pines 

" Paddy has had too much," said Hig^gins, 
putdng his arm around the generous drunk. 
" The silver there is enough to treat you all 
I'll keep the rest as Paddy's banker. Ifa 
his when he sobers up." Turning to the 
drink-mixer : " You call yourself a man and 
take money from a fellow who isn't in his 
right mind? Bah I You're a scoundrel or 
you would have sent this fellow away long 
ago. Your whole ilk are leeches and blood- 
suckers." Higgins led Paddy out and took 
him to Bemidji where he put him to bed. 

Next morning Paddy wandered into the 
hotel lobby where he found the preacher. 
" Somebody went through me last night, Mr. 
Higgins," he began ; *' they cleaned me out 
o' every cent and pinched mie hat an' coat 
I'm up again' itl What am I goin' to do ?" 

"Go home. That's what you're going 
to do," said the preacher with decision. 
" Robbed you, did they ? Nobody needed 
to rob you. It couldn't be done, Paddy. 
When I met you last night you were throw- 
ing your money away faster than they could 
take it from you. You had already lost your 
coat and you threw yotu- hat out of the car 
window on the way here." 

Faddy hung his head — he had been there 
before. 



»i by Google 



" Muscular Christianity " 1 29 

" But we saved a little for you — enough to 
get you back home. Here is the roll thaf s 
left. Buy a ticket and start homeward is my 
advice." 

" I wish you had run onto me sooner," 
Paddy said, sorrowfully, as he looked at the 
money. 

Paddy came of a good family, his brother 
being a prominent Catholic priest He took 
the advice of his friend and left the woods, 
never more appearing among his old asso- 



The proverb, " A man is known by the 
company he keeps," is true in the main, but 
not always applicable. A camp chaplain as- 
sociates more with sinners than with saints : 
he is a friend to the unnice, a brother to the 
unwashed, yet different from bis company in 
manner and morals. Hlggins and Smith 
travelled together ; but it would be unfair to 
judge either by the other. Here is the story 
— a story well known in the logging district 
of Minnesota : Smith was one of the best. 
He did things and looked the part Physic- 
ally, " none better in the North woods " was 
the verdict of the men who worked under 
him. His ability to master problems had 
won recognition, but he was feared because 



»i by Google 



130 The Parish of The Pines 

of his vidous habits — another case o! what 
whiskey can do with a man. 

Once when Higgins preached in Smith's 
camp. Smith came to the meeting and 
drunkenly listened to the sermon. A tense 
stilhiess filled the place, for the audience was 
in sympathy with the earnest preacher. 

Suddenly another voice broke into the har- 
mony. It was Smith, yelling blasphemous 
encouragement : 

"Lace it to them, Higg^s. Give them 
blazes, old boy 1 The dogs need a dose of 
religion to make them log right" 

" Don't notice him, boys," said Higgins ; 
"that's whiskey that's talking. Whiskey 
isn't ashamed of anything." 

At the end of Frank Higgins' first year in 
Bemidji, when the camps poured their human 
flood into the settlements, he visited the little 
village of Farley, Minnesota. The lumber- 
jacks were taking the town apart The 
drought was turned into a deluge. Coin 
streamed over the bar ; a tide of liquor re- 
turned, and every mother's son felt equal to 
ten and acted accordingly. On the comer a 
group of lumberjacks, apparently well pleased 
with their amusement, attracted the preach- 
er's attention. They were joyfully watching 
a human giant who wallowed in the mud 



»i by Google 



" Muscular Christianity" 131 

vtith hog-like abandon. It was Foreman 
Smith, too drunk to know or care. Higgins 
dragged the poor fellow from his muddy 
bed, leaned him against a building and 
scraped the filth from his garments with a 
shovel. 

Smith's father and brother-in-law were 
trading in Farley that day, and they begged 
the preacher to take Smith to the Keeley 
Cure in Minneapolis, two hundred miles dis- 
tant. They could be of no assistance in this, 
for Smith had previously severed all connec- 
tion with his relatives, and for two years he 
had not visited them, although seldom far 
from home. Higgins had no desire for the 
task ; but it promised, at least, a partial ref- 
ormation, and any improvement would be 
worth while. To accomplish the journey 
with his unwilling patient it would be neces- 
sary to keep the man drunk. So the minister 
packed his grip with whiskey — rather unmin- 
isterial baggage — hoping to beat the devil 
with his first lieutenant. On the train when 
the conductor caUed for the tickets he found 
Higgins soothing the foreman with the bottle 
and laughingly questioned : 

" On your way to Presbytery with a lay 
delegate ? Or are you bound for the distil- 
lers' convention ? " 



»i by Google 



132 The Parish of The Pines 

Woodsmen, on their way to the dty, 
packed the smoking car, a drunken company. 
Smith's fightings proclivities ran high and 
the ever present bottle alone kept him from 
" stirring up the animals." 

"It was the only time I tended bar all 
day," said Higgins ; " and I'm not anxious 
to repeat." 

The sweltering car was in a sanitary way 
unbearable and drove the missionary to the 
day coach for cleaner breathing, where he 
visited with Smith's father, who dared not 
approach his son. But before leaving the 
smoker Higgins had installed a teamster as 
bartender to his demanding charge. But he 
had not counted all the possibilities when he 
pressed the teamster into service. The sub- 
stitute bartender had imbibed a litde before 
entering the train, and, being a frugal soul, 
drank deeply of the free whiskey at hand. 
The mixed drinks produced rapture, and the 
happy jack lifted his voice in song. It was 
the day following St Patrick's Day ; and a 
company of loyal Irishmen lounged on the 
depot platform at Walker, the green ribbons 
of yesterday's celebration still on their coats. 
The tipsy teamster was an Orsingeman and 
the gfreen decorations awakened his befud- 
dled brain to visions of the glorious London- 



»i by Google 



" Muscular Christianity " 133 

deny days where feasts and fights were a 
part of all celebrations. 

Balancing on his belt buckle, he leaned far 
out of the window and began the soul-stirring 
song, " Protestant Boys." It raised his green 
rosetted auditors to enthusiasm. History re- 
peated itself. A stout blow drove the singer 
across the car, jammed him between the seats 
and hushed his maudlin melody. Pande- 
monium broke loose. The attempts of the 
drunken passengers to assist the Orangeman 
to his feet resulted in a round of fights. 

" Come into the smoker quick ! " cried the 
conductor, hurrying to Higgins. " Come 
and take care of your parishioners. We 
can't handle that booze-soaked crew." 

Higg^s found the teamster so wedged in 
between the seats that his best efforts to 
extricate him were fruitless. Finally, Smith, 
disgusted with the ineffectual attempts of 
the others, grabbed the waving legs and with 
one jerk, damaging alike to teamster and 
seats, yanked the Orangeman from his 
temporary prison. 

At Brainard they changed cars and waited 
two hours for the Minneapolis train. Smith 
immediately made his arrival known, and the 
station-master drove Higgins and his charge 
out of the waiting-room, for the logger's 



»i by Google 



>34 



The Parish of The Pines 



abusive hilarity threatened to wreck the 
building. Next an officer ordered them o£E 
the streets ; and when they had retreated to 
a saloon Smith's billingsgate secured them a 
hasty ejection. The foreman's temper was 
rising high. As he dragged the husky 
preacher up the street he consigned the 
whole town to the himace room of the 
universe, which, for their special benefit, was 
to be heated seven times hotter than it was 
wont to he heated. An officer approached 
to arrest the disturbers ; but he recognized 
Higgins, and, on hearing his story, placed 
the police station at his disposal until the 
south-bound train was due. 

When Smith realized that he was in the 
police station his anger knew no bounds. 
He rushed at his companion with closed fist 
But Higgins, anticipating the attack, stepped 
deftly aside. The heavy blow split the door 
panel and left Smith with a badly bruised 
hand. The eventful journey finally ended 
and the woodsman entered the rest room of 
the Keeley Institute just as the bell signalled 
the patients to prepare for treatment The 
inmates removed their coats and rolled up 
their sleeves so that the injection could be 
administered. This coat-removing pleased 
Smith. It savoured of a fight ; so he quickly 



»i by Google 



" Muscular Christianity " 135 

dofied his own, and with raised guard stag- 
geringly advanced to battle. But the patients 
had fallen into line and were marching past 
the doctor. Instead of the fight Smith re- 
ceived the initial treatment 

Several years have passed since this in- 
cident occurred. Smith is stilt a sober man, 
respected for his ability and honoured and 
trusted by his employers, who have placed 
large interests in his hands. Having known 
the degradation of drink he is a strong advo- 
cate of temperance. 

Near Tenstrike worked a French Cana- 
dian, whom, for obvious reasons, we shall 
call "Old Quebec." This lumberjack was 
□either a wise man nor a fool ; neither was 
he commonplace. There was no uncertainty 
about his prejudices ; he was satisfied to 
violently oppose or loyally assist What he 
admired he unreservedly supported ; what he 
hated he unreservedly cureed. Well, he 
cursed the Sky Pilot in lurid language un- 
forgetably unique. "Old Quebec" was not 
religious ; far from it — but if a man professed 
spiritual relationship that allegiance must 
link itsel! to the Catholic Church or " Old 
Quebec" would not tolerate the advocate. 
If you had asked him : " Isn't this prej- 



»i by Google 



136 The Parish of The Pines 

udice?" he would have sworn you out of 
countenance, thus satisfying himself and 
silencing you. And when the Rev. F. E. 
Higgins came to camp, " Old Quebec " 
thought him a fool because religious and a 
knave because a Protestant 

At the missionary's first meeting, " Old 
Quebec " was the " bull in the china shop." 
He poured his torrent of blasphemy, invective 
and abuse upon the minister, shocking every 
decent man in the camp. When asked to 
allow others the privilege of worshipping he 
shook his fist under the speaker's nose. 
There are some whom one cannot eject 
"Old Quebec" probably belonged to this 
class ; at least Higgins avoided a test So 
there were two speakers at the meeting that 
evening, and Mr. Higgins, being more ac- 
customed to public address, won out. How- 
ever, after the benediction he did not wait to 
collect his hymn-books, but retired to the 
office. 

" I had held a meeting," said Higgins, 
" and had not been driven out by the French- 
man. 1 was satisfied to let it go at that" 

One cold Sunday night Higgins stopped 
at the hotel in Tenstrike and before retiring 
visited the bam to care for his dog team. 
The yard was littered with cakes of ice, the 



»i by Google 



" Muscular Christianity " 137 

ice-house being' in process of filling, and as 
he picked his way between the cakes he 
stumbled over the body of a man. Higgins 
lelt for evidences of life. The body was cold 
and motionless. Rushing into the barroom 
he called for assistance. "Old Quebec," 
about to start for the camp, sat on the end 
of the bar, swinging a lantern between his 
legs. 

" Hurry, Quebec I " cried Higgins ; " bring 
your lantern and help me. There's a dead 
or dying man lying out among the ice." 

"Old Quebec" slid down from the counter 
and hurried into the yard with the Protestant 
preacher. 

" Take hold of his feet, Quebec," directed 
Higgins. 

But the Frenchman had no desire to touch 
a dead body. "You can carry him," he 
said. " I'll light the way." 

Fortunately the man still lived. He was 
drunk and frozen and the timely aid alone 
saved his life. While Higgins worked over 
the unconscious man, Quebec, on his stool, 
silently swung the lighted lantern between 
his legs and watched every move. 

" This fellow will need to stay here a few 
days," said Higgins to the hotel keeper. 
" He has no money. Charge the bill to me." 



»i by Google 



138 The Parish of The Pines 

Shortly afterwards the Sky Pilot again 
visited " Old Quebec's" camp. The French- 
man sat in a prominent place — silenL 

" Suppose Quebec's waitin' till the preachin' 
before he butts in," whbpered one of the boys 
to a neighbour. 

The sermon began. Through it all the 
Frenchman listened attentively. It was the 
first undisturbed service that the camp had 
known. « 

" What's the matter with the Frenchman 
to-night?" asked the minister. "Is the 
fellow sick? This meeting has been a quiet 
affair." 

"Old Quebec" caught the minister's eye 
and beckoned him. "How's our man* 
Higgins?" he inquired. 

" Oh, he's all right I " replied the amazed 
preacher. 

"There it is, Pilot." said the Frenchman 
extending his hand; "thafs yours now. 
Will you shake it?" The men warmly 
shook hands while the camp burst into cheers 
and slapped them on the back. " I've been 
pretty rough on you, Mr. Higgins. I ain't 
got much time for religion ; but after what I 
saw that Sunday night in Tenstrike, I'm 
settled. You're willin' to do for us poor 
fools what we ain't got sense enough to do 



»i by Google 



" Muscukr Christianity " 139 

for ourselves. Anythin' I can do for you, 
Pilot, I'll do. I'm with you. Shake again." 

The hate of " Old Quebec " has turned to 
strong, helpful friendship. As a contrast to 
the past he now feels responsible for the 
camp decorum. Woe be to the jack who 
dares to interfere with a Higgins meeting 
when that Frenchman is present In many 
ways he has shown his desire to recompense. 
Once in Bemidji a group o| lumberjacks 
blocked the sidewalk. "Old Quebec" saw 
Higgins approaching and waded into the 
gang casting them right and left. "Open 
up the road for the Pilot," he cried. " He's 
made easy sleddin' for 'many a one of us and 
I'll road-monkey for him." 

Faith Cometh by hearing. " Old Quebec's" 
chances are bettered ; for the word of God is 
like leaven. 



»i by Google 



THE RIVER PIGS 

THE call of spring opens the lakes and 
rivers ; and the burdened ice drops 
its mass of logs into the released 
waters. During the winter, millions of logs 
have been landed on the ice, until the lakes 
resemble a deep plowed field and the rivers 
have lost their high banks. Thousands of 
the campmen engage for the drive, following 
the winding streams for months after the 
winter camps are closed. These picturesque 
rivennen, " water hog^," " river pigs " — call 
them what you will ; they are not sensitive in 
the matter of names — are the brave, daring, 
reckless fellows who pilot the winter's cut to 
the distant sawmills. Their life is adventur- 
ous, warped and woofed with danger, brimful 
of exposure and hard beyond belief. A mis- 
step from a floating log carries many men- 
aces : a ducking in the icy stream, a crushed 
limb between the moving timbers or a grave 
beneath the logs that quickly close above the 
submerged. 

Where the stream is rapid, only alertness 
keeps the logs from jamming. If the prog- 



»i by Google 



by Google 



FUBUCLIBKAKY 



Upl:«l by Google 



The River Pigs 14 1 

ress is impeded the oncoming rear crowds 
the floating timbers into a mass confused and 
compact The grinding logs groan with the 
weight behind them ; huge timbers are splin- 
tered and broken in the crush. It requires 
picked men to find the key log and to loosen 
it Only the brave will face the piled-up 
death ; only a trained, skillful riverman can 
make his way to shore when the released 
logs, twisting and bursting, rush down the 
stream. When the jam breaks the workman 
jumps from log to log, like a pursued squirrel, 
taking them as they come with incredible 
swiftness. Many a poor jack has gone down, 
crushed to death when the logs have suddenly 
started ; and his body, discovered days after- 
wards, has borne litUe resemblance to human 
form. Where human ingenuity and strength 
are unable to find and remove the key log 
dynamite is called into the game. 

The more hazardous the calling, the more 
reckless become the workers. Foolhardy 
deeds are common. Without a thought of 
danger, the drivers often ride the logs 
through rapids that sing a song of death. 
At Hell's Gate, on Kettle River, while Hig- 
gins was out with Martin Cain's crew of 
drivers, two men drove the batteau through 
the rapids, contrary to orders, with the result 



»i by Google 



142 The Parish of The Pines 

that the boat was smashed to splinters and 
its contents lost ; the men themselves, when 
almost exhausted, were rescued with the 
greatest difficulty. And it was with the river 
pigs tliat Higgms first began his preaching 
to the foresters. His interest has remained 
with these daring men. The drive is interest- 
lag but is not the best place for mission work. 
Meetings are all held in the open and weather 
conditions often make a service impossible. 
The long hours of labour exhaust the river- 
men so that they drop to sleep as soon as 
they return from the stream and the mos- 
quitoes, plenteous in the North woods, disturb 
the thought and make convicdon impossible. 
The missionary's help is mostly given to 
the rivermen on their arrival in town after the 
drive. They are ready for a rapid spree and 
need a sober head and kindly hand to save 
them from themselves and the temptations 
of the town. 

The drive was in. The river pigs were 
paindng the town red. For the sake of law 
and order a few of them were thrown into the 
lockup for its sobering effect One of the 
boys, on awakening in the morning, found 
himself behind the barred doors and immedi- 
ately sent for Mr, Higgins to plead his case 



»i by Google 



The River Pigs 143 

with the justice. Higgins asked the justice 
to let the man o£E as lightly as possible, but to 
give him a thorough reprimand. The judge 
was a good friend of the missionary ; but at 
the time of the trial he could not be described 
as sober. He was able to sit up, though that 
taxed all his powers to the limit Calling the 
prisoner before him the judge began : 

"Whiskey is-s a bad thing. It ma-akes a 
f-fool of an h-honest man an' a blank 
f-fool of a fool. Therefore — therefore — it 
s-shouldn't b-be t-touched by 1-lumberjacks. 
It ma-akes a f-fool of everybody t-that 
t-touches it If you don't believe it, j-just 
I-look at the j-judge who has the p-power of 
sen-sentencing you. S-see w-what w-whiskey 
has done for me. B-because of my f-friend 
Higgins I'll let you oS t-this t-time ; but 
re-remember the judge, and let w-whiskey 
alone. Dis-dismissed I " 

Solomon could not have chosen a more apt 
illustration, and the river pig appredated the 
force of the example. Taking the missionary 
with him to a hotel, he drew off his boots and 
extracted a roll of bills containing one hundred 
and fifty dollars. " If the blood-suckers who 
made me drunk," he said, " had known I 
had this they would have robbed me of it as 
they did of my loose change, before they 



»i by Google 



144 The Parish of The Pines 

drove me into the street I'm through. 
Pilot — I'm through with the liquor." The 
man went to North Dakota, settled on a farm 
and to^lay owns three hundred and twenty 
acres of good land. 

Funerals are usually sad and solemn affairs. 
Not so the one that Higgins conducted over 
a poor rivennan who had met his death the 
last day of the drive. The missionary was 
walking down the main street of the village 
when a drunken river pig approached and 
hailed him : " Say, Pilot, one of the bunch 
fell ofi a log, pulled the hole in after him and 
is at the coffin-shop ready for the bone-yard. 
We want him planted like a decent Christian ; 
he weren't no squaw man. See to the 
trimmin', will you? Do the job right if 
you've got to buy out every wannigan in 
town. Are you on, Pilot? The crew's at 
Blank's saloon. Call for us ; we want to go 
with you to Jim's bunkin' place." 

Higgins went to the undertaker's and had 
the fK>dy placed in a plain pine coffin, secured 
a dray and drove up to Blank's saloon for 
the boys. Out on the sidewalk the rivei 
pigs came noisily ; but when they saw the 
dray and the plain pine coffin they stopped 
abruptly. 



»i by Google 



The River Pigs 145 

" It's no go, Pilot," said the one who had 
spoken to the minister ; " this is no jack-pine 
farmer's funeral. We're no cheap skates. 
This crew has money an' intends to blow it 
Give us a run for it" 

Then another rum-soaked river pig spoke 
up: 

" If this was a tin-horn gambler or a bloated 
saloon-keeper they'd have a hearse an' a 
band. Jim's only a river pig but he's got to 
be planted with the frills just the same." 

" Get a decent box an' hearse an' carriages 
an' call again," they shouted as they backed 
into the saloon. 

It was a more imposing procession that 
stopped at Blank's saloon an hour later. A 
hearse and six carriages completed the cor- 
tege. The mourners also had changed to a 
state where feelings of the sublime and ridicu- 
lous blend to produce an incongruity. 

" This is the way to do it" cried a river 
pig viewing the hearse and carriages. 
" Wouldn't Jim be tickled to death to see 
this show an' to be the whole blank thing? " 

"Say, Pilot" said one as Higgins helped 
him into the carriage, " when we meet Jim 
later he'll say, 'I'm proud o' the way you 
fellows rid me out o' town.' " 

" Pretty nigh two months' wages gone for 



»i by Google 



146 The Parish of The Pines 

a box; but what's expense when we're 
plantin' Jim?" weepingly commented Jim's 
bunkmate, " He'd 'a' done as much for me 
if I'd 'a' give him a chance. If s his last blow- 
oyt anyway." 

All the way to the cemetery the mourners 
continued to express their satisfaction over 
the " frills " of the obsequies. There was an 
undertone of complaint, however, because 
poor drowned Jim could not personally 
thank them for the honour conferred. At the 
grave it looked as if more than Jim were 
going to occupy it ; for with difficulty the 
drunken men were restrained from tumbling 
in on the casket The minister spoke a few 
words on the uncertainty of life and the need 
of the preparation for ihe future, but the ad- 
dress had many interruptions from the weep- 
ing attendants with their interjected praises 
for the dead. 

" Speak a good word for Jim, Pilot Tell 
the Lord he could ride a log as well as the 
best of us." 

" Get him through, if you can ; he wasn't 
so bad." 

" Good-bye, Jim I Our turn's comin'." 

The last words were said ; the minister 
turned to leave. " Hold on there I " cried 
the foreman. "This is no pauper you 



»i by Google 



The River Pigs 147 

buried, but a man whose friends aren't 
broke." Taking off his bat, the foreman 
turned to the crew. " Shell out, you pigs I " 
he cried. " Jim's been planted O. K. Now 
pay for the words the Sky Pilot shed over 
his bones. This is no poor-farm job." 

The boys responded with a liberal collec- 
tion for the pastor's services. 



»i by Google 



THE CAMP-JUMPERS 

THE northern night was hastening to 
the forest and we to a near-by camp. 
It was cold — bitter cold. The mer- 
cury at the hotel registered twenty-five below 
zero when we left town and it was probably 
huddled at the bottom now. Through the 
lairy forest, ice-bound, snow-covered, we 
passed as rapidly as our primitive locomotion 
would permit, momentarily glancing at the 
ever-changing pictures, crystallized by frost, 
diamond-spangled by the setting sun; but 
despite the beauteous landscape, we wished 
for the heavily loaded stove of the bunk 
house. 

" Glorious weather for logging I " called 
the Sky Pilot over his shoulder ; " if this 
keeps up the swamp roads will hold and 
they'll land the whole cut" 

It was too cold for optimistic thoughts and 
I looked anxiously for the blue smoke of the 
cook-sback to announce the end of the 
journey. 

As we sighted camp, a young lumberjack 
emerged, his pack on his back. 
14S 



»i by Google 



by Google 



POSUC LIBRARY 



»i by Google 



The Camp-Jumpers 149 

" Jumped your job ? " Higgins asked the 
young traveller. 

"I'm hittin' the trail. Want a change," 
replied the woodsman. 

" Want a drink, isn't it P " burst out the 
preacher, looking him straight in the eyes. 
" Your hide's cracking 1 Admit it I " 

"Maybe," said the jack shamefacedly; 
" but I won't go in soak this time, Pilot I'm 
on." 

" You're on, eh ? " indignantly came from 
the minister. " You're off, I tell you ! What 
is there in town for you but drink? They 
cleaned you out last time, boy, and they'll do 
it again if they get one drink into you. 
Leave it strictly alone. Bill." The Pilot's 
hand rested on the boy's shoulder. 

" It's good advice, and I'll try to take it." 

" Good-bye, my boy. I'll pray for you; 
but it's no use unless you give yourself a lift." 
As we walked into the camp clearing he 
added : " I wish I were in town to see Bill 
through. That dirty bunch back there will 
load him hill, clean every cent out of him and 
then toss the poor fellow into the snake room 
to sleep off the booze." Higgins stopped 
and gazed after the figure now far down the 
road. " And some preachers say there is no 
hell." He was thinking aloud. "I know 



»i by Google 



15© The Parish of The Pines 

there is ; and so do the lumberjacks. There 
must be one for the fellows who damn these 
big-hearted chaps who want to do better but 
liaven't the will to make the grade — for the 
fellows who turn the lumberjacks from so- 
briety to drunkenness and make many good 
workmen into worthless camp-jumpers." 

The greatest trouble with which the loggers 
have to contend is " camp-jumping." So far 
no adequate cause for it has been found and 
no tried method successfully represses it 
The camp-jumper is irresponsible, ungovern- 
able ; the old Presbyterian doctrine of Total 
Depravity is unqualifiedly accepted by the 
proprietors as the only explanation that 
comes within a mile of ezpkining him. The 
contractor's task is to keep a competent crew. 
He has one crew coming, another working 
and a third leaving. This is loss to employer 
and employee ; but that never worries the 
employee. A jobber thus described the 
situation : " The jacks work until their hides 
begfin to crack, follow their tongues to the 
nearest irrigation plant and tank up until the 
stake is gone. Then they mosey into camp 
to dry out again. It's an endless chain 
affair." It might be suggested that if the 
camps had a few more comforts, an added 



»i by Google 



The Camp-Jumpers 151 

chance for cleanliness and some provision for 
an occasional bath, the men might not prove 
so restless and the glitter of the saloons prove 
less attractive. 

It takes little to amuse jack ; it takes less to 
make him jump his job. He does not com- 
plain when afiairs are not to his taste : he walks 
into the office, demands his wages and " hits 
the trail." Ofttimes a whole camp will 
"jump" on the slightest provocation. Re- 
sentment does not enter into the transaction. 
The outgoing lumberjack may meet one 
coming in but rarely will he suggest anything 
detrimental to the camp. Even where a 
whole crew jumps there is no interference 
with the logger's attempt to secure a new 
gang. Camp-jumping is purely an individual 
affair : unionism has not entered the lumber 
district. One man, being a little late for 
breakfast, found the pancakes all gone. He 
immediately went to the clerk and demanded 
his wages. Here is another case : Jack 
Olson was ready to leave camp — just because 
he wanted to — so he entered the office and 
demanded the amount due him. But it was 
an off day with the clerk who tossed the little 
Norwegian out and went on with his news- 
paper. 

Against such generous violence little Olson 



»i by Google 



152 The Parish of The Pines 

could not retaliate. He waited until his 
husky bunkmate returned from the works. 

" The bloat wouldn't give you your stake, 
hey ?" asked bunky. 

" Va ; an' Ay ban kacked out," explamed 
Olson. 

Bunky was interested. His eyes twinkled. 
" Come on, John, old boy I " he said affection- 
ately, taking Olson by the waist "Come 
on and watch the free show." Arriving at 
the office bunky entered it with a jar. " Sit 
down there, John, in that reserved seat, while 
I raise the asbestos curtain and turn on the 
red fire." Stepping close to the clerk, 
Olson's bunkmate shook a monstrous fist 
under the nose of the astonished time-keeper, 
and said; "Are you the guy that splashes 
ink? Then sprinkle out my walk. Sprinkle 
one for Olson, too. Squirt fast, or this little 
shack will look like Hades upset." Without 
comment the " guy " grabbed his pen and 
the " walks " were " sprinkled out " in reand 
time. Bunky and Olson left the camp like 
victorious generals and celebrated the event 
by blowing their entire stake before the night 
closed. 

I had returned to the office after a walk 
around the clearing. " What are those men 



»i by Google 



The Camp-Jumpers 153 

doing in the bunk house at this time of the 
day ? " I asked the clerk. 

" Camp inspectors," replied Erickson. 

"Camp inspectors!" incredulously; 
"they're iiardly fit representatives of the 
state of Minnesota. They look like ordinary 
lumberjaclcs." 

Erickson enjoyed my ignorance. " They're 
not official, only individual. They're fellows 
who pass from camp to camp, work a day or 
two if things suit them, and then move on to 
another camp, like birds of passage." 

This led to a discussion on camp-jumping 
in which all the office force joined. 

"This camp aims to keep one hundred 
and sixty men at work," said the clerk. 
" How many do you suppose we've had 
since the middle of October P " It was then 
the last of January. 

"Five hundred," I guessed. 

" I booked the eight hundred and seventy- 
fifth this morning ; and we treat our men 
better than they do in most camps." 

" Seventy men left the week before Christ- 
mas," added the superintendent " They 
were booze-hoisters, every man of them." 

" That's better luck than they're havin' at 
Cavin's Camp," remarked the scaler, naming 
a camp we had visited the day before. 



»i by Google 



154 The Parish of The Pines 

" They lost seventy-eight in one week be- 
cause of a poor cook. They had a hot time 
of it — had nine cooks in seven days. That's 
goin' some I " 

" The men are rovers, travelling men with- 
out jobs." It was the lineman who made the 
remark. " They kick on the grub an' it's as 
good as they'd get ata two-doUar-a-day hotel. 
In town they live like hogs, an' hit the back 
doors for a handout The grub's an excuse 
when some other excuse ain't handy." 

While the discussion progressed, I idly 
turned the pages of the Duluth News Trib- 
une and noticed an item descriptive of one 
contractor's troubles with the camp-jumpers. 
I read aloud : " In his camp on the Duluth 
and Iron Range, the gang has been main- 
tained at an average of sixty-five, but in do- 
ing that no less than six hundred and ninety 
odd names figure on the pay rolls since they 
began to operate last October. Somewhere 
around a dozen only of the gang have been 
on steadily. Nowadays a large proportion 
of the lumberjacks work perhaps for half a 
month and then go to the office for their 
time, apparently with sm itching to come to 
town to blow it" 

" No exaggeration there," commented 
one. The others agreed. 



»i by Google 



The Camp-Jumpers 155 

" Some of the jacks are never in a camp 
more than a week," volunteered the " straw 
push," who had said Uttie because it was dif- 
ficult for him to talk without swearing, and 
with two ministers present be felt somewhat 
restrained. 

The remark reminded Higgins of old Ben 
Ashley : 

" I met Ben in Camp i on the Deer River 
Line and be asked me bow many camps I 
had preached in this winter. I said about 
forty, ' Oh, thaf 5 nothing,' replied Ben. 
' I've worked in that many myself this 
year.' " 

The lineman, a droll old chap, spoke up : 
"I know Ben. He says, 'A settin' hen 
never grows fat.' An' I says to him, ' But 
she accomplishes somethin'.' Ben never 
stays in a place long enough to find the time 
o' day." 

" It isn't the grub thaf s at fault," said the 
walking boss, bringpng the discussion back to 
a consideration of causes. " The Oliver Min- 
ing Company treat their men exceptionally 
well and they have as much trouble as the 
rest" 

" It's a habit and an appetite," said a man 
on the other side of the stove ; " it's a habit, 
that's what it is." 



»i by Google 



1 56 The Parish of The Pines 

"Sure ifs a habit," agreed the Imeman. 
" You know Gunny Sack Kane ? He's worked 
for every logger on the Range. Hardly a 
camp this side o' the Dominion he hasn't 
slept in. Well, Crawley, the push, saw Gunny 
Sack in Dulutb dressed up in Uncle Sam's 
army uniform. Gunny had enlisted. 

" ' They've got you at last where you won't 
jump your job,' Crawley said to him. 

" ' Oh, I dtmno about that,' says Gunny, 
' I'll be back to work for you again this fall.* 
An' true enough. Gunny turns up accordin' to 
his yearly schedule." 

" Duluth is said to be one of the best re- 
cruiting points," remarked the clerk; "and 
the recruits are mostly lumberjacks. That 
may account for some desertions." 

" Why do they jump most when the wages 
are best?" asked the scaler. 

" More money for booze in a shorter time," 
the straw push explained. 

" The employment agencies are partly to 
blame," said the walking boss, as he lit his 
pipe. "They advertise higher wages else- 
where, and the lumberjacks hike to town for 
the easy money. The agent collects a dollar 
for each job, sends the men to a camp where 
the foreman is in the game, and the foreman 
sets them to work at lower wages than they 



»i by Google 



The Camp- Jumpers 157 

expected. They work a few days to get a 
stake, then jump again. Their wages are 
cut because they leave before the month is 
out and the logger and agent are both ahead. 
The agency gets him another job for another 
dollar — it's a merry-go-round with the jacks 
paying the piper." 

"Doesn't the law protect the men?" I 
asked. 

" Yes'; but the men know they have no pro- 
tection from the shyster lawyers, and seldom 
sue." 

" I know one agency," remarked the line- 
man, laughing at the recollection, " that 
shipped a crew o' jacks into North Dakota to 
cut railroad ties ; an' there ain't a forest in the 
whole bloomin' state. That agency stole its 
own oats ; for the state revoked its license. 
The foreigners are an ignorant bunch any- 
way." 

"You may talk about the foreigners all 
you like, but these books show that the white 
(English speaking) men are the worst camp- 
jumpers we have," The clerk tapped the 
time-books. 

The talk continued. Many theories were 
presented : drink, women, shiftlessness, lack 
of ambition, the cupidity of the employment 
ag^ides, the rascality of the employers — all 



»i by Google ■ 



158 The Parish of The Pines 

these and others received mention — and 
while we talked a lumberjack entered the of- 
fice, demanded his time and left without vol- 
unteering a reason for jumping his job. 



»i by Google 



XIII 

"EASY MONEY" 

THE saloon has not neglected this 
thirsty field ; its " irrigating projects" 
are everywhere. The priests of the 
goddess of chance, tnoreover, have built con- 
venient sanctuaries where the luckless wor- 
shippers may impoverish themselves; and 
other vices flourish. The verdict of those who 
ought to know is that about eighty per cent. 
of the lumberjacks part with tiieir wages in 
the saloons, gambling dens and more vicious 
haunts. One camp foreman, an Irishman, 
gave the following opinion with the air of a 
statistician: "Well, to be conservative, I 
would place the percentage of those who 
blow their stakes as soon as they hit town 
at ninety-nine and then some." 

The attitude of the men towards saving 
money is well set forth in this little story: 
Sam was a camp cook, earning eighty-five 
dollars a month, with no one to support but 
himself. 

"I've punched dough for twenty-three 
159 



»i by Google 



l6o The Parish of The Pines 

years now," said he. " I've earned lots o* 
good money an' never blev it fooUsh." 
" Then you are well-to-do ? " 
" Not exactly that — ^John D. an' me ain't 
pards yet I mean, I get the best for my 
money. Last year I went down river with 
nearly five hundred of the clear coin and 
only wasted a dollar an' a half o' the whole 
stake." 

/""" For whiskey ? " 

,'' " No. I paid fift^ cents for a hat an' a 
/ dollar for rubbers. That's all 1 wasted." 
i " Then you banked the rest of your wages?" 
j " Banked 1 No, I barred it 1 Blew it in 
i havin' a good time — the biggest two days I 
ever had." 



^! 



Many a man has passed thirty to forty 
years in the camps and has not a cent to 
show for his labours. The money was not 
spent on wife and family, for most of the men 
are single ; little went for food, for board is pro- 
vided. Tim Doney, for example, entered a 
hotel in Tenstrike to wait for the train going 
south. Tim had finished his winter's work and 
had the wages to show for it. The saloon men 
tried to ensnare him but he resisted their 
wiles and left the village with his check un- 
cashed. When the runners learned that he 



»i by Google 



"Easy Money" 161 

was bound for Bemidji they wired the gam- 
blers at that place to meet him. A " toot," 
genial and sympathetic, greeted him as he 
stepped of[ the train. The new comrade acted 
like an old friend. To cement the relation- 
ship, of course, one must treat and the other 
do likewise. The end was already in sight 
While they drank an attendant made music 
with the flying roulette ball. Its suren song 
seduced. Tim lost in a few hours the wages 
of a long winter. 

The leeches aie not in the saloon business 
for their health; "it takes more than pine 
breezes to pay expenses." Through the 
easily obtained by-products many a dive- 
keeper has placed himself above want It is 
part of this benevolent system to "short 
change" and "roll " the drunks, thus remov- 
ing temptation, continuous while the money 
lasts, to protracted drinking and debauchery. 
This is doing evil (with a vengeance) that good 
may come — a beautiful moral argument for 
pocket-picking. The beginning and end of 
the saloon is to make money. It deals in de- 
pravity, dulls the finer senses and reduces the 
moral distinctions of those who live by it 

What mattered it to the rum-sellers that 
Colin Campbell's old mother had not seen 
him for nineteen long years ? If they could 



»i by Google 



l62 The Parish of The Pines 

get his cash she could wait another nineteen. 
Colin had tried all these years to return to 
her ; but he felt that he could not go unless 
he was well clothed and apparently prosper- 
ous, and the saloons had kept him reduced to 
a~ working suit. Each year he happily left 
the camps with wages intact. 

" I'm goiu' home to see her," he told his 
employers. "She's gettin' old now. She'll 
be glad to see me an' I'll stay with her all 
su mm er. Good-bye — till fall." 

But Colin got no farther than the city of 
Duluth. He stopped there each spring to 
wash up and have one litde drink. He in- 
tended to take only one, just one ; but some- 
how — he could not explain it — he was not 
able to stop as long as he had money. When 
he sobered up he wrote the mother, telling 
her it was impossible to make the trip this 
year, then turned wearily back to the old 
logging firm to work another twelve months 
and hope for better things. 

This had gone on for years. At the e i 
of the nineteenth season, Scott, the superin- 
tendent of the company for which C<^in 
worked, took the affair in his own hands. 

"You're going home this year, Colin. 
You're going to see the mother." 

*' If I can get through Duluth ! " replied 



»i by Google 



" Easy Money " 163 

Colin with the bitter memory of past defeats 
■ crowding his mind. 

" You're going this year all right, my boy," 
said the superintendent "It's about time 
she saw you — and I'm sure she will. You 
get no cash this time. I've bought your ticltet 
to Montreal and some clothes ; and when you 
get home the year's wages will be waiting for 
you there. Now good-bye. Remember me 
to the mother." 

Colin Campbell saw the mother. After 
nineteen years of waiting they spent a happy 
summer together. 

The possessor of pampered appetite is an 
easy prey. An abounding thirst leaps the 
barriers of common sense, derides prejudice 
and grasps the forbidden regardless of con- 
sequences. Even in the camps desire is mas- 
ter. Moonlight Bill Hagen had cultivated 
his appetite until his prindpal vocation was 
to serve it. Bill was always thirsty. He 
welcomed joyfully anything containing al- 
cohol. The winter was the dry season to him, 
as it is to many others ; and he knew what 
the pangs of appetite can do to a man. He 
solaced himself with liniment (for external ap- 
plication only) and although it almost burned 
his " innards " out yet it " helped some " and 



»i by Google 



164 The Parish of The Pines 

he declared, " I led it doin' me good." Moon- 
light was barn boss ; and during a particularly 
dry spell he discovered that spirits of nitre 
(kept as a horse medicine) had power to as- 
suage the loud internal longings. There 
were two quarts at hand and Bill went on a 
great spree. Unfortunately, the stuff drove 
him insane ; and whether he ever recovered 
or not I have not been able to learn. 

The strong box of the bank is proof against 
the burglar with kit and nitro-glycerine ; but 
the toy of appetite opens it at pleasure. Jack 
was a thrifty soul — his patched trousers and 
old hat confirmed the statement At the end 
of the logging season he deposited his money 
in the bajik and told the boys of his new plan 
to keep it beyond the reach of the saloons. 
" I've got the cash skidded," said he, " where 
if s safe from the ' toots and tinhorns.' " Jack 
had reserved a five dollar bill for celebration 
purposes and entered the saloon with the 
happy consciousness of a surplus for rainy 
days. But he had many friends ; the five did 
not go far enough ; it did not even quench his 
long thirst or rinse the taste of the pine from 
his throat. So he went to the bank and pre- 
sented a check for another five dollars : this 
would surely " liquidate the drought" 

The spirits ran high, animal and vegetable ; 



»i by Google 



" Easy Money " 165 

and Jack, waving his banlc-book over the 
drinking crowd, proclaimed himself the peer 
of any Wall Street magnate. In his exuber- 
ance he visited the bank again and again, 
never drawing more than five dollars — 
drunken Jack was crafty and would not trust 
the bartenders with his checks. Before the 
bank closed he had visited the establishment 
so often that the cashier declared the new ac- 
count a nuisance, handed him his balance and 
invited him to bank elsewhere. When morn- 
ing looked down the rear alley Jack was 
sleeping off his liquor and his pockets were 
turned wrong side out 

His appetite had been stronger than the 
bank. 

The 6nancial stringency caused by the 
lumberjacks' absence comes to a sudden end 
when the jcamps break up in the spring. A 
bumper crop of dollars is quickly garnered 
by means of whiskey, short change, no 
change, the games and women. This is the 
hour for action ; the woodsmen are without 
will in the face of the marshalled temptations. 
But the picture is not all sombre ; some have 
conquered through the human and divine 
help which has come into their lives. While 
Mr. Higgins lived in Bemtdji an old lumber- 
jack — ^Johnson is as convenient a name as 



»i by Google 



i66 The Parish of The Pines 

any — ca m e directly from the camps to the 
minister's home. 

" Mr. Higgins, I've come to ' Robber's 
Roost ' to get cleaned out again," began old 
man Johnson. "They've cleaned me out 
every year an' they'll do it again. I'm get- 
tin' old, but I can't keep my money." 

"How much have you?" asked the big 
missionary. 

"Two hundred and seventy-five dollars," 
replied the old man ; " but I won't have a 
cent in the momin' — not a cent to show. 
They'll go through me for it all." 

The old man sat by the fire, his head in 
his hands. Down the weather-beaten cheeks 
great tears made their hirrowed course and 
his strong h'ame shook with grief. 

" You will have every cent of it," answered 
the minister. " I'll run the game this time. 
I'll fix it for the gamblers ; but it will be 
straight for you. Hand over your cash — 
every cent of it. I'm your banker. You 
can't have the money until you're ready to 
place it into something permanent." 

Johnson's face lit up as he handed his 
wages to the minister. " Glory be I We've 
done it, Higgtns. I've made a safe landin'. 
Logs all in, contract filled — the first time in 
years." 



»i by Google 



" Easy Money " 167 

While the old man rejoiced in his new 
saiegfuard a "runner" from one of the sa- 
loons knocked at the door and inquired for 
the lumberjack. 

" For what do you want him ? " asked the 
missionary. 

" I have a little business to see him about," 
suavely replied the man. 

" Johnson has transacted all his business, 
Mr. Man," said the minister. " I have every 
cent of his cash, and your whole gang can't 
get it from me. Now, you blood-sucker, hike 
or I'll kick you off the premises 1 I know 
the game. Git I" 

It was not necessary to speed the parting 
guest : he departed quickly and alone. 

Old man Johnson looked at the minister 
through moist lashes. " Made a landin', 
Pilot, but too close for comfort." 

What would we do without the broad phi- 
lanthropy of the American saloon ? 

The wide open policy of the " easy money " 
towns has damned the lumberjacks ; but its 
advocates have not escaped the virus they 
cultured. The townsmen digged a pit for 
others and fell into it themselves. The de- 
sire to pro6t through evil gave a semi-re- 
spectability to wrong-doing and the path of 



»i by Google 



i68 The Parish of The Pines 

Btraight business with its slower gains became 
more and more obscured. Respected men 
fell under the miasma ; honoured men were 
seared with the pitch of association. The 
leaven has done its work and the generation 
that has followed is cursed with a tainted 
inheritance that unfortunately is more than 
a memory. 



»i by Google 



XIV 

THE RED BADGE OF SHAME 

WHEN a woman sins society creates 
an outcast ; it passes quick judg- 
ment and its sentence is as kind 
as lynch law delicately administered by a 
mob. When a man sins society draws the 
white mantle of sweet charity over the 
offender and a multitude of transgressions 
are respectably interred. Our sympathy 
goes out to the ernng lumberjack ; the ad- 
ventures of his forest life appeal and our 
well-wishing prayers are raised for him 
abundantly. To the wearers of scarlet no 
mitigating glamour attaches ; we are repelled 
and for them we forget the needed prayer. 
The woman is a SINNER — writ large : for the 
man we make excuse. The lumber region 
is of course a favourite minting place for the 
woman whose trade is stigmatized. The 
woodsircn are rough and hardy, primitive 
in desire and strongly willing to reap the 
harvest of wishes ; so our soiled sisters crowd 
close to the camps and in the new villages 
169 



»i by Google 



170 The Parish of The Pines 

the red EroDts are seldom in the background. 
In some hamlets they hold the choicest loca- 
tions. 

These social outcasts have found spiritual 
friends in Frank Higgins and his assistants 
— almost the only real friends they have 
known since their descent When sickness 
and death threaten, others may and do hesi- 
tate to respond to their cry for help ; but these 
missionaries answer gladly, and minister to 
the craving souls. They know no distinc- 
tions when the hand of mercy is sought 
One night the Pilot prayed for and instructed 
a poor Magdalene whose soul was fording the 
deep, dark waters of death ; and the women 
of the resort drew near to listen. It was an 
incongruous scene, the dying woman asking 
release from sin, surrounded by her weeping 
companions dressed in the tinsel of entice- 
ment 

When Mr. Higgins was leaving an inmate 
drew him aside and told her sorrowful tale. 

"I am near the end myself," she said; 
"the doctor promises me only six months 
more. This life has cut me down in my girl- 
hood." 

The minister held out the cheerful hope of 
the Gospel. 

" It's not for such as me," she replied, 



»i by Google 



The Red Badge of Shame 1 7 1 

shaking her head. "No. I'd be ashamed 
to ask God to forgive me. I'll make a short 
six months of it This life is hell. Hell itself 
can't be worse." 

The following Sunday evening a message 
from the place begged the minister to come 
at once. The girl who had detained him in 
conversation was dying. Weary of pain and 
shame she had taken poison. Now in the 
hour of death she wanted the touch of a 
clean, kind hand, and desired a prayer for 
her sin-tired soul. The poor Pariahs turn 
naturally for personal aid to this big, simple- 
hearted minister. His keen sympathy is 
contagious. They know he will gladly help 
to reformation or calm with prayer the hour 
of death. The train south-bound from Black- 
duck was crowded with lumberjacks. A few 
seats ahead of the Sky Pilot sat a woman 
whose garb unmistakably proclaimed her 
calling. When she beckoned the minister to 
her side a knowing smile played on the faces 
of the passengers and coarse jests came from 
many mouths. But Higgins unhesitatingly 
took the proffered seat This is the woman's 
story : she was leaving the place of her shame 
and did not know where to go for safety. 
She knew no open door save the abodes of 
sin. Would Higgins help her? Higgins 



»i by Google 



172 The Parish of The Pines 

directed her to a refuge where the bands of 
Christian women were wann with welcome, 
where no wanderer met rebuff. Acting on 
his advice, assisted by a letter of introduction, 
she went to the city of Duluth and entered 
the door of hope. In tliat new abode she 
was led to the'Saviour and under His influence 
lives a respectable life. 

When the heavy hand of dread disease fell 
on the litde son of the Master of the Segre- 
gated DO dean woman entered the door to 
sympathize and help. The Master of the 
Segregated was unnice, of questionable ways 
and inelegant connections, but he passion- 
ately loved the little lad who tossed in fevered 
agony on his bed. His boy was as dear to 
him as is an only son to approved parents — 
his heart's desire, his hope in whom centred 
aspirations and clean ambitions. But to the 
home no one came with kind words to 
brighten the dull, dark hours of painful 
watching. Higgins heard of the lad's illness 
and entered to help and pray, not once, but 
many times. The boy died. Years after- 
wards I talked with the Master of the Segre- 
gated ; and he told me the story. 

" Higgins came when no one else would," 
be said. " I don't blame them, but I like 



»i by Google 



The Red Badge of Shame 173 

the real Christiaoity he showed. We were 
broken-hearted and Higgins gave us a Chris- 
tian hand that lifted us up. ... I never 
drink now." 

"Why?" I asked. 

He placed a picture of a boy in my hands. 
The face, bonny with health, was framed 
with curls ; and in the eyes shone winsome 
laughter. 

"Your boy?" 

"My boy — 'the boy Higgins prayed for. 
When he was dying he said, ' Daddy, don't 
drink again. Good men don't drink, daddy.' 
I haven't since. . . . Higgins came and 
prayed for him," he repeated. "I like the 
kind of Christianity that that man has. He 
helps folks and doesn't ask any questions — 
just does his simple du^. Isn't that like 
your Christ?" 

Whether or what I answered the Master 
of the Segregated, I do not remember. I 
was thinking of how the Nazarene dealt with 
a woman who weis a sinner. 



»i by Google 



INTO THE MOUTH OF HEIX 

TO the devotees of the debauch Uie 
shrines of Uceose are open and ao 
cessible; with lurid vice and red 
liquor the worshippers pay their tithes to die 
priests and priestesses of the underworld. 
Exceeding excess is the consummation de- 
sired ; like the blind rush of a bursting tor- 
rent they speed the csimival of folly, the 
Mardi Gras of iniquity. Noisy lustings 
drown the dread rattle of slave chains and 
uproarious hilarity accompanies the progress 
of the revel. " Hell looks like a spluttering 
tallow dip in a shower when the lumberjacks 
begin to blaze in the spring." Near the 
camps are the villages ; in the villages dwell 
the spoilers. Lust and liquor solicit attention 
while fickle chance invites to fortune and 
reduces to beggary. Here vice encourages, 
evil welcomes and hell advertises — for sin is 
original, progressive, up to date and success- 
ful. 

In the camps the missionary is mostiy a 

preacher ; in the lumber towns his work is 

174 



»i by Google 



Into the Mouth of Hell 175 

cut to no design or pattern. His tasks are 
unusual and unexpected ; grace is mixed with 
riot and religion goes arm in arm with brute 
force. It is personal work in the broadest 
and narrowest sense — changing chance cir- 
cumstances into Christian activity. 

" You've had more than enough, Jack ; 
time you turned in," said Mr. Higgins to a 
man who was drinking at the bar. 

" What's it to you ? " asked the angry bar- 
tender ; " mind your own business." 

" This is my business," replied the minis- 
ter. " This fellow is too drunk to know what 
he is doing, so 1 will take care of him." The 
minister took the drunken man by the arm 
to lead him out. 

" I'll see you in hell before I'll let you have 
him I " savagely yelled the drink-mixer, leap- 
ing over the bar to assault the missionary. 
But he reckoned without his host. The 
heavy arm of the preacher shot out and the 
bartender measured himself on the sawdust. 

"Here's one of your own to care fori" 
called Higgins to the proprietor. "When 
your man wakes up tell him not to interfere 
with the cloth and its duties. I have to take 
care of the hoys — ikafs my business!" 

"Th-that's your business 1" mumbled the 
drunken lumberjack as Higgins led him out 



»i by Google 



176 The Parish of The Pines 

"Go to the slums to see depravity," is a 
common remark. But the slums are relega- 
ted to the far rear when the lumberjacks and 
river pigs begin to scatter the coin. By mid- 
night the " snake room " is piled deep with 
men lying in horror. Why attempt to de- 
scribe it? It can't be done. I have a photo- 
graph of a snake room in which over hfty 
men are lying on the floor, sleeping ofi the 
drink and drugs. The picture was taken be- 
fore midnight A logger of repute told me 
of seeing over a hundred men packed in this 
same room, every one of them without a cent 
through liquor or robbery. A city mission- 
ary visited the camps and after viewing the 
snake rooms cried : "It is past betief 1 
Keep at the work 1 Let them at least know 
that there is a God in Israel I " 

Many a man has been picked out of the 
snake room by the missionaries, carried to 
a hotel and carefully tended while reason 
slowly returned. Barney was educated for 
the Catholic priesthood but drink had ruined 
him and he joined the degenerates in the 
woods. Higgins found him in the snake 
room almost buried under human flesh. For 
three weeks Barney had been drinking and 
during that time he had not changed his 



»i by Google 



Into the Mouth of Hell 1 77 

clothes or even washed his hands. The Pilot 
carried him to a lodging-house, bathed his 
body and put him to bed. Higgins nursed 
Barney back to health, tenderly watching 
over him until he was able to return to camp. 

Helphilness counts. Actions such as these 
may uot result in the desired conversion, 
but they reveal the spirit of Christ and are a 
modem commentary on the broad humanity 
of His teaching. 

On the banks of the Galilean lake our 
Master, who never wearied of doing good, 
■aid to Peter : " Simon, lovest thou Me ? " 

" Yea, Lord, thou knowest that I loveThee," 
replied the fisherman. 

Then the divine lips gave to Peter and to 
us the end and aim of Christian relationship : 
" Feed My sheep." Love for Him is best ex- 
pressed by helping men. 

" Who is that fellow ? " asked a stranger 
who saw Higgins helping the lumberjacks 
in the village. 

"Thafs the lumberjacks' Sky Pilot, who 
never turned a lumberjack down," said a 
woodsman ; and added : " His job is keepin' 
us out of hell." 

It was crudely but reverently expressed 
and told of a Christianity that acts. 

"Here, Dan, you're too drunk to deal 



»i by Google 



178 The Parish of The Pines 

with these sober sharpers. Hand over your 
pile. You don't know whether you're win- 
ning or losing." 

" You're right. Pilot," answered the drunken 
lumberjack, who was playing roulette, " you're 
always right Put me to bed." 

Nineteen dollars was all Dan had left 
Higgins put him to bed and returned to 
the saloons to aid other prodigals. Shortly 
afterwards a " runner " called on Dan and 
induced him to demand the money from 
Higgins, but it was too late. The preacher 
had already mailed the money to Dan's 
home. 

On another occasion two campmen were 
spending freely when Higgins joined them. 
A gambler, determined to offset the influ- 
ence of the minister, came into the group. 
Higgins succeeded in inducing one of the 
men to accompany him and in the presence 
of the gambler the lumberjack handed over 
his money and valuables to the missionary. 
Among other things he deposited a confed- 
erate medal that had been conferred for 
bravery in the lost cause. After seeing the 
ex-confederate safely stowed in bed, Higgins 
returned to try his powers on the soldier's 
partner, who had remained with the gambler. 



»i by Google 



Into the Mouth of Hell 1 79 

Only a few minutes bad passed, but when 
Higgins found him he was drugged and 
lying in the snake room, his empty pockets 
testifying to another's quick industry. 

" Where is this man's money and watch ? " 
asked the missionary of the gambler. 

" You don't think I went through him, Mr. 
Higgins? " asked the disciple of chance. 

" You ought to know. You had him in 
charge." 

The gambler laughed and went out whis- 
tling a low air. There was no possibility of 
recovering the spoil ; the town officials were 
hand in glove with the "business men." 
The appeal to law would have produced a 
short one-act farce ; so Higgins carried the 
man from the snake room and laid him be- 
side his soldier friend. 

The cheap whiskey soon places the drinker 
in a condition where he can easily and quickly 
be " rolled " ; but should he prove a slow 
subject the "dope" is handy. A canny 
Scotchman, speaking of the "doctored" 
whiskey, said : " I would as soon drink a 
cup of the wrath of God as empty a. dose of 
that stuff into my vitals." Frank Higgins 
and the writer were passing through the 
saloons and gambling houses in a Northern 



»i by Google 



i8o The Parish of The Pines 

village when their interest was arrested hy a 
young travelling man who liberally played 
his chips at roulette. Merrily the ivory 
ratded. Hour after hour the game went on. 
We visited other places of drink and chance 
and returned at midnight The travelling 
man was still at the wheeL Hope lingered ; 
but his haggard, drawn expression told the 
story of his losses. The game ended at one- 
thirty o'clock in the morning. 

The travelling man walked to and fro in 
the lobby of the hotel, despair depicted on 
his face. He staggered like one in the power 
of liquor, although he had not tasted it ; and 
the look in his eyes suggested self-destruc- 
tion. Seating himself at the desk, he wrote 
a short letter and handed it to the clerk 
to mail. Higgins, who had watched the 
stranger's every move, whispered to the 
clerk to hold the letter until the morning. 
Approaching the travelling man, he put his 
hand on his shoulder. 

"You're all in, brother, I suppose ? " 
" I'm worse than that. I'm an embezzler. 
I have spent all my own money and money I 
held in trust I deserve the penitentiary. 
I have just written to tell my employers that 
I have gambled away their money. I wish I 
were dwd." 



»i by Google 



Into the Mouth of Hell i8i 

" Sit down and let us talk it over," said 
Hig^ns. 

The man began his story. He had been 
trained to a profession but the confinement 
incident to his vocation brought on ill health 
and he had gone on the road for a well- 
known firm. He was the only child of re- 
spectable parents and the effect his disgrace 
would have on them was uppermost in his 
mind. His parents were old. I admired the 
handsome fellow for his apparent love for 
them. " I have disgraced them," he said in 
anguish. " When they hear of this it will kill 
them." 

" You're in no condition to think out a 
course of action," said Higgins. " Promise 
me you won't leave this place until you see 
me after breakfast. Now get to bed." 

" I have no money for a room. 1 have 
been dishonest enough as it is, without 
wronging the proprietor." 

"The clerk will give you a room and 
charge it to me," said Hig^ns, taking the 
matter in his own hands. " Don't do any- 
thing more in this matter until you see me at 
breakfast Now get to bed. And God bless 
you ! " 

After breakfast Higgins interviewed the 
town and county officials. What arguments 



»i by Google 



i82 The Parish of The Pines 

he used I do not know ; but after the confer- 
ence the gambler took the travelling man's 
note for the amount he had embezzled and 
returned the cash. Before this was done 
Higgins had had the man pledge himself 
never to gamble. He sent him avay with 
the knowledge that this assistance had come 
because of the old folk. "When you're 
tempted to gamble, think of them and do a 
little praying. Then yoa'll find it mighty 
hard to covet another man's goods." 

That same night we entered a palatial 
saloon and gambling place and found few 
men present We joined the proprietor in 
conversation. 

" Things are pretty quiet," said Mr. Higgina 
" I suppose you are hardly making expenses, 
now that the men have gone back to camp 
after the holidays." 

"Hardly," answered the saloon-keeper. 
" But I don't worry ; it will come in later." He 
nodded towards the camps west of town. "All 
the boys are working." He considered the 
earnings of the lumberjacks bis legitimate 
spoil — his beyond question. 

The wife of a saloon-keeper, overhearing a 
remark about her jewels, said ; " I can afford 
to wear costly things; my husband has a 



»i by Google 



Into the Mouth of Hell 183 

thousand men working for him in the woods." 
The meaning was obvious : the earnings of a 
thousand men would come to her husband 
through the saloon, gambling tables and stalls 
connected with his establishment The brazen 
effrontery of those in the business is indescri- 
bable. Flesh and blood of men is lowered to 
the brute ; appetites are satisfied, passions en- 
couragfed, and no shade of shame comes to 
the countenances of those who make the con- 
dition possible. Human misery counts for 
nothing ; money alone has value. Get the 
money regardless of all else, is the policy I 
A mantle of self-righteousness, a robe of 
satisfoction, clothes the men of this vocation. . 
" Bad ? Of course it's a bad business," said 
one of them, " but as long as there are fools 
to buy the stuff and play the game, we'll be 
on the job. It's their lookout, not ours." 

" But you are morally responsible for tempt- 
ing men," I suggested. 

" All that a man is responsible for is for be- 
ing honest," he replied. " No man was ever 
robbed in my place. The games are straight," 
(The man told the truth.) ".I may go to hell 
when I'm through ; but God knows I've 
played a straight game." 

One of the gamblers with whom I talked 
said : 



»i by Google 



184 The Parish of The Pines 

" There isn't a more honest set of men in 
the country than the professional gamblers. 
They're all right ; but the associations are 
bad." This description may apply to some, 
but not to many : for the games are often 
" crooked," and by means of mechanical de- 
vices are made sure for " the house." A lum- 
ber cruiser entered a gambling den in a Range 
town and lost several thousand dollars. He 
examined the board and found that it was 
not " on the square." Drawing his " gun " 
he "shot up" both the gambler and the 
wheel, took his money from the till and de- 
parted. The gambler was maimed for life ; but 
there was no prosecution : it was better to 
stand the loss than an investigation. 

These places are palatial and attractive, 
fitted with the best, resplendent with light 
and glitter. Everything is designed to allure. 
No wonder the men who have experienced 
the discomforts of the camps are easily caught 
in the net spread at their feet I On errands 
of mercy Frank Higgins has entered him- 
dreds of dram-shops and gambling places. 
It is there that his straying sheep are to be 
found. 



»i by Google 



XVI 

WAYSIDE MINISTRIES 

"\'\ TALKIN' Boss of the Sky Route 
%/%/ Company " is a fair description 
• » of Frank Higgins' position : for 
while superintending the mission he con- 
stantly passes from camp to camp, visiting the 
missionaries and arranging new groupings for 
hiture labour. Incidents tread on eadi other's 
heels in the pineries. Opportunities for use- 
fulness present themselves at every turn of 
the way — chances to scatter the seed of the 
kingdom. Sometimes the sower beholds the 
good harvest Again he sows in hope — 
sows beside all waters, if you will. The Pilot 
was visiting a new camp when they told him 
of McGee, who had been raised amidst 
Christian surroundings. When McGee met 
the Pilot he confessed that he had committed 
what he called " the impardonable sin." In 
his anguish, he rambled in the forest, crying, 
praying, half crazed over the impending 
doom. 

" Here, Mac I " said Higgins. " You'd like 
to be a saved man, wouldn't you ? " 
i8S 



»i by Google 



i86 The Parish of The Pines 

" God knows I woidd I " came the honest 
response. 

" Who put that wish into your head, God 
or the devil ? " 

"Neither," replied McGee. "Ifs myself 
that wants it" 

" Then ifs up to you, Mac," said the 
preacher. " God says : ' Him that cometh 
unto Me I will in no wise cast out' Unpar- 
donable sin, nothing 1 You say you want to 
be saved ; God says He'll save tiie man that 
comes to Him. What more do you want 
anyway ? Don't be a fool, Mac I Can't you 
see it's up to you ? " 

McGee saw the point. 

The pastorate has its trials; but for un- 
bounded, unexpected variety the camp mis- 
sionary has the dty pastor far in the rear. 
Church quarrels have their bounds ; there are 
no limits to the quarrels of the lumberjacks. 
In February of 1907 I received a letter from 
Mr. Higgins describing a. railroad trip he had 
just taken. A portion is appended : 

" I left Deer River on the Itasca Logging 
Road for Fourtown, and experienced the 
worst trip it was ever my lot to take. The 
car was crowded with lumberjacks, few of 
whom were sober. They had over twenty 



»i by Google 



Wayside Ministries 187 

quarts of Deer River squirrel whiskey, and in 
a short time things were moving at a terrific 
rate. . , . . The Swedes, the Irish, and the 
Glengarry Scotch were filled with whiskey, 
and every man was out for blood, and blood 
they had — an abundance of it ... I 
took a hand trying to keep order and suc- 
ceeded in preventing three fights, but the 
conditions were soon beyond me ; it was im- 
possible for even a travelling missionary to be 
in more than one part of the car at the same 
time. 

"When matters got to this pass, I had to 
content myself with interfering only when it 
seemed that permanent injury would be done 
to the participants. One old man, very much 
under the influence of liquor, had his face 
battered beyond recognition. . . . No 
sooner had the champion of this afiair been 
separated from his victim than another lum- 
berjack was at the bully giving him the same 
medicine he bad so liberally administered to 
the old man. This second scrap placed an- 
other patient on my hands. 

"When we came to the different camps 
and the men began to leave the train, I had 
to literally drag them through the snow away 
from the track so they would not be killed. 
. . . Was it not Paul who said ' I have 



»i by Google 



l88 The Parish of The Pines . 

fought with beasts at Ephesus ' ? I bad a 
like experience on that logging train. A sober 
woodsman who saw the fights said : ' Pilot, 
why do you continue to work among such 
men ? ' And I made answer : ' Because my 
Master died to save such.' This is to me a 
sufficient reason. The conditions need chang- 
ing, and the only thing to bring about the 
change is the Gospel." 

In this forest region much land is open to 
settlement The little cabins of the home- 
steaders stand far from the railways, iar from 
the villages. Many of the settlers stroll into 
the bunk-house services, it being their sole 
chance to worship with their fellows. As 
the missionaries pass from camp to camp 
they call on the lonely families, giving 
cheer and news of the outside world, leaving 
literature, and reminding the folk that God's 
interest extends to the highways and hedges 
of His creation. In a homesteader's cabin 
dwelt a family consisting of parents and two 
little boys. There were few comforts in the 
home, only bare necessities, but the family 
lived happily until sickness prostrated the 
mother. Distance and an empty purse for- 
bade calling a doctor ; and after a brief ill- 
ness she left the world and its privations. 



»i by Google 



Wayside Ministries 189 

Lovingly they placed her body in a rude 
box and buried it in the snowy clearing near 
the house. Weeks passed, and, late one 
night, the Sky Pilot asked for shelter. At 
the breakfast table the father told him the 
story of poverty and of the lonely death. 
" If we could only have given her a Christian 
burial," said the man, " we would feel better. ' 
She was a good woman, a Christian, and we 
could not do even that for her." Later in 
the day four figures stood beside the crude 
cross, now glorious with glistening snow 
crystals, and the long deferred service, 
fraught with the hope of immortality, was 
read. It eased the pangs of parting. The 
day of promise blossomed in the hearts of 
the lonely family. 

Personal interest is the key-note of Hig- 
gins' work. " I love these fdlows," he said 
as we looked over the riotous crowd injhe^ 
barroom. " I'd rather help the down-and- 
outs than hobnob with millionaires. It's 
real fun picking these fellows up and setting 
them on their feet." 

" Does it pay?" asked a friend. 

"Does it pay?" Higgins asked in returnL, 
" Why, I've bought many a man body 
and soul for a quarter. And to own a man 
is the biggest bank account I know of." . 



»i by Google 



190 The Parish of The Pines 

"Bought them for a quarter?" asked the 
friend incredulously. 

" Sure 1 I fed them when they were hun- 
gry and set them on their feet They knew 
I had no string to the meal and in return 
they made it easy sledding for yours truly 
where the ice was poor and the roadway 
over a shaky muskeg." 

Just then a trembling old lumberjack, 
evidently at the end of a debauch, called 
Higgins aside. The two talked a moment, 
then the Sky Pilot called to us : " I'll be 
back in a few minutes 1 " and went out vritii 
the lumberjack. 

We watdied the two pass into a restaurant. 

" I was a stranger and ye took me in," said 
one of our company ; and another remarked : 
" He's buying a lumberjack for a quarter 1 " 

Higgins is rich in personal chattels despite 
the fourteenth amendment of the United 
States Constitution. On one of his journeys 
Higgins found Mike Grogan drinking in a 
Tenstrike saloon, and with compelling per- 
suasion removed him from temptation, put 
him on a train and accompanied him to the 
camp over which Mike was foreman. 

" Well, Frank, you saved my job and my 
money to-day," said Mike, a few hours later. 
"That means food and clothes for thechildren." 



»i by Google 



Wayside Ministries 191 

Mike was a hard worker and a hard drinker 
— an old timer with the old timer's faults. 
He was separated from his wife but he reg- 
ularly sent money for the support of the chil- 
dren. Higgins desired to recondle husband 
and wife ; and knowing Mike's love for his 
htcle ones, contrived to bring them to camp. 
Through them his desire was realized and 
the parents were reunited. Mike has re- 
formed, is educating his children and enjoy- 
ing the happiness of family life. 

" I can hold up my bead now and look the 
world soberly in the face," he said, "but 
what I am to-day is through the mission- 
aries." 

Camp 5 lay sixteen miles from the railroad. 
The snow, like a mantie of charity, covered 
the dead leaves and rotten boughs ; the nar- 
row tote-road was crisp to the tread, making 
a crunching accompaniment to the swinging 
stride of the Sky Pilot, who was headed for 
'Camp 5. Where two trails make one, the 
minister met a woodsman on his way to the 
same camp. The wajrfarers joined company. 
The lumberjack, soaked with liquor, stag- 
gered more and more as they trudged along, 
and the arm of the minister assisted Louis, 
keeping him to the beaten road. It was 



»i by Google 



192 The Parish of The Pines 

neither a light nor a pleasant task ; the mis- 
sionary's heavy pack was burdensome, and 
staggering Louis made the long road longer 
and more heart-breaking. Louis gradually 
increased in drunkenness, till he sank help- 
less on the frozen snow. It was death to 
leave him there in the forest; so Higgins 
earned his rum-soaked companion to the 
camp, where he arrived worn out with the 
exertion. 

After the bunk-house meeting Higgins 
found his drunken friend, battered and bleed- 
ing as a result of courtesies exchanged with 
His Majesty the Cook. Louis needed a kindly 
hand to bind up his wounds ; the preacher 
spent a part of the night in the ministry of 
healing. In the following spring, when the 
camps poured a thirsty horde of foresters 
into the villages, the missionary again met 
his companion of the traiL Louis was drunk, 
as might have been expected of him, and 
filthy to a degree defying description. Hig- 
gins dragged him to the river, rolled him into 
its flowing waters, and kept him there until 
the bath had sobered and cleansed the man, 
who sorely needed both, 

" You're white pine without a knot," said 
the now rational and wet Louis. " You treat 
even me like a brother." 



»i by Google 



Wayside Ministries 193 

"That's our relationship, Louis; we are 
brothers," quietly replied the minister. 

" I'm a low-down dirty bum, and you're 
white to me," returned Louis, sadly. " Tell 
me, Higgins, why you're a friend to the likes 
o' me?" 

" For Christ's sake, Louis — for His sake I " 

In the answer Frank Higgins made to 
poor Louis is the only explanation that really 
explains the acdons of this apostle to the 
" down-and-outs." 

Bocky was every man's friend ; he had no 
enemy save himself. Bocky was a gray " Old- 
timer," worn with many winters passed in 
the cold, inhospitable woods. Old age sat 
heavily on his bent shoulders ; it was there 
to abide. Bocky had been a slave from youth 
to old age. Drink was his taskmaster, to 
whom he had given his all. Years ago 
Frank Higgins met Bocky, loved him as a 
brother from the first, encouraged him in his 
dark moments, helped him when he was 
empty and spent, and through the years 
prayed for the old fellow's conversion. Every 
fall when the woods began to awaken with 
the opening of the lumber season, Higgins 
inquired for the camp in which Bocky was 
at work, and as soon as possible visited it. 



»i by Google 



194 T^^ Parish of The Pines 

though it might be far and inaccessible ; for 
old Bocky, lonely and needy, appealed to 
the missionary's soul. Bocky returned the 
hiendship with dog-like afiection, listened 
■without remark to the pleadings of the min- 
ister, nodded his agreement when chided, 
then travelled at the first opportunity over 
the hard, beaten path of least resistance, 
spurred by his insatiate appetite. But the 
Pilot still prayed for his friend Bocky. 

A year ago the long-delayed collector 
arrived, and demanded asettlement. Bocky's 
body could stand the abuse no longer. Time 
was tired of continuing with him ; so the 
kind-hearted lumberjacks carried old Bocky 
to the hospital, " that he might die betvreen 
clean sheets." Hlggins heard of his friend's 
illness, and hastened to give him a hand in 
the valley. 

" They're countin' me out this time, Frank. 
I'll have to throw up the sponge." 

" Yes, old man ; it is ten this time," said 
the minister, kindly, as he looked into the 
face of his friend. " But you are going to 
settle your score with God before you leave 
us, Bocky?" 

The. old man was silent. While the clock 
in the hall counted the present, the minister 
silently prayed for the man who had wronged 



»i by Google 



Wayside Ministries 195 

no one but himself ; and the mind of the 
weary old lumberjack wandered over the 
years to the days of home and mother. 
Bocky broke the silence. 

" Frank, my mother used to tell me that 
Jesus Christ died for sinners such as me. 
Does that stand good yet ? That's my class. 
Does that stand good yet?" 

"You bet it does, Bocky I Jesus Christ 
is the same forever." 

The clock ticked on. The moments 
passed. At last Bocky spoke, satisfied and 
childlike in his trust : 

" Then I'll bank my all on that I " 

Bocky lay in the hospital for weeks, cheer- 
ful and contented, " banking his all" on the 
sacrifice that never grows old. On that 
foundation old Bocky found a peace passing 
knowledge, and in that faith he left the Pilot. 

So the Sky Pilot works, year after year, in 
season and out of season, in camp and saloon, 
in highway and byway, doing a multitude of 
tasks requiring more than common grace. 
Self has little part in the work. He is think- 
ing of the other fellow. " i would give twenty 
years of my life if I could have the devotion 
of the men as Higgins has it," said one of 
the camp missionaries. I replied : " It is 



»i by Google 



196 The Parish of The Pines 

' yours in the same way that Higg:ins got it. 
Devote yoursell to the men, and forget your- 
self in the devotion." Then I opened an old, 
old book, and read again the sensible words 
of One who humbled Himself that we might 
be exalted : " If any man desire to be first, 
the same shall be servant of alL" 



»i by Google 



THE BARRIERS OF PREJUDICE 

IN all new work prejudice must be met 
The mission to the camps was no excep- 
tion. Some of the men thought it a new 
species of graft, and having been victims of 
many old games, they were not anxious to 
have a new one talce its toll. Others desired 
to remain undisturbed, knowing that a 
straight sermon makes an active conscience, 
while many were antagonized because of early 
training in another branch of Christianity. 
With the loggers and proprietors there was 
uncertainty as to the outcome of religious 
work among the men. Some opposed, 
knowing themselves guilty of improper 
treatment of their employees and fearing the 
mission work might stir up protest. Agita- 
tors had caused labour troubles in the past ; 
the possibilities of a religious movement 
adding to those troubles naturally caused 
hesitation. That the woodsman might be 
interested in the things of God was also a new 
thought to many employers, and they laughed 



»i by Google 



198 The Parish of The Pines 

at the suggestion ; for it vas evident to the 
experienced ones that the lumberjacks were 
already damned by lund lusts and limitless 
depravity. 

Without the consent of the proprietors 
Higgins knew that the doors were sealed 
against him. To secure that pennission re- 
quired tact and ability to wait 

"Religion is a good thing, but it won't 
help lumberjacks," said one of the first con- 
tractors to whom Higgins applied for permis- 
sion to preach in his camps. " Save your 
labour. These men ^e determined to go 
down the flume, and religion can't land 
them," 

"Let me try the Old Story," pleaded 
Higgins. " I believe it will help even 
lumberjacks. Open your camps. I can't 
make the men worse and the Gospel may 
make them better. Give it a chance." 

Permission was reluctantly given, and to 
" the devil's own " Higgins told of the Man 
of Galilee who came to publicans and sinners 
and loved them into clean living. It did not 
result in a Pentecost, but some faced about 
The Christ who came to " the down-and- 
outs " reached even lumberjacks. 

" 1 (Udn't believe it possible," said the con- 
tractor afterwards ; " but the preaching put 



»i by Google 



The Barriers of Prejudice 199 

backbone iDto some of the jacks. Godknows 
they need stiffening I " 

The lumberjacks of one winter are scattered 
all through ihe North at the opening of the 
next season ; there is little to tie employer 
and labourer together. As a result of this 
scattering, invitations come from all parts of 
the state for preaching services and old friends 
of the missionaries are to be found in all the 
camps. Sixteen years ago this could not be 
said. Friends were few, opposition was rife. 
It was necessary to force doors open, to still 
misunderstanding, and by character and qual- 
ity of work to prove that aitmism was the 
compelling motive. 

"This field in the woods looked big^" said 
Higgins, as we conversed about the begfin- 
nings ; " but I didn't spend my time worry- 
ing about what was to be done. I started in 
to do my little best, and it looks as if God had 
given me a chance to help a few of the boys. 
It's selfish of me, yet I'm glad this job is go- 
ing to last a lifetime. It's great sport intro- 
ducing men to God, helping them clean up 
their lives. There isn't a pastorate in the 
States I'd exchange for mine." 

In a Northern camp Higgin|Juid^m«acbed 
for the first time. Of ai^^^nM'^^^^>^ 
fiS^ W.tHiN'S USR,5P.V C.rjj_'\-\ 



200 The Parish of The Fines 

takeo a ctdlecdon. The men could not un- 
derstand why he should preach unless he was 
after the money; so several of them followed 
him to the office to find the why and where- 
fore. 

" Domine, we want you to put us next," 
s^d the spokesman. 

"Next to what?" 

"Oh, come across! Whafs the game? 
You aren't preachin' for nothin' and you 
didn't ask for a handout. Let us in on it" 

Higgins explained that he was sent as a 
missionary to the camps and was paid by 
the Presb}rterian Churdi. The lumberjack 
looked their wonderment. 

" For God's sake I " one ejaculated, " what 
do you think o' that ? Sendin' missionaries 
to us I They think we're God-forsaken 
heathen I Did you ever hear the like?" 

Then Higgins carefully explained the atti- 
tude of the church. " Boys, the Christian 
people worship God in their churches and 
they want you to have the same chance here. 
The bunk house isn't much to look at ; yet if s 
our church, and I'm sent as your minister." 

Prejudice is hard to overcome and shows 
a steady opposition until a new force bars its 
action. Some men are impervious to arg^- 



»i by Google 



The Barriers of Prejudice 20I 

ment, some to courtesy, but few fail to re- 
spond to the nice persuasiveness of a strong 
man with a mighty arm. I am not attempt- 
ing to prove that this is best ; nor would I 
care even to leave that impression, but I re- 
member the days when the rod properly ap- 
plied produced better results than all the 
homilies — in iact, the homilies would have 
received scant attention but for the birch that, 
like Damocles' sword, hung suspended by a 
single h£ur. Some men remain children and 
only the potentials that produced results in 
childhood will aid to fruitage in manhood. 
The Frenchmen in Parker's Camp had at- 
tained the physical weight of grown men but 
not the niceties of developed minds. 

The meeting was in full swing. The song, 
hearty, strong and free, went merrily on in 
spite of discords, varying keys and tuneless 
voices. The men felt its spirit, enjoyed their 
own music and tried to outdo all former ef- 
forts. But an undertone of discontent came 
from a group of Frenchmen, who clannishly 
sat at the north end of the shack. This was 
a Protestant service, and they showed their 
dislike in face, gesture and voice. The op- 
position grew bolder as the meeting pro- 
gressed and remarks unkind and annoying 
were hurled at the preacher. While the 



»i by Google 



202 The Parish of The Pines 

camp sang, Higgins twice visited the dis- 
turbers, asking for peace, and affairs 
progressed favourably until the sermon be- 
gan. Higgins was not the only speaker. The 
noise from the Frenchmen grew louder un- 
til his address could not be heard. 

E^tience had ceased to be a virtue ; so the 
preacher rolled up his sleeves, and, g^ed 
for battle, faced his competitors. 

" You pea-soup eaters will do one of two 
things; you will listen to the Gospel or take a 
threshing. Speak up ; which do you want?" 

"Throw them through the roof, Pilot; 
we'll see fair play," cried a sympathizer, joy- 
fully — this was a minister after his own heart. 

'* Give 'em a threshin* an' the Gospel too," 
advised a swamper. 

" You've got to puncture the hide of that 
outfit to get any decency into their heads," 
came from another, as he pushed back the 
crew. " Crawl into the top bunks ; you can 
see better," he commanded the men. 

Then came a deep silence broken only by 
the winter wind and the roaring fire. 

The Frenchmen carefully viewed the mus- 
cular exponent of Christianity, his rounded 
muscles, the fearless face, the determined 
jaw. The examination was unsatisfactory, 
the odds appeared to be against them. 



»i by Google 



The Barriers of Prejudice 203 

There was no fight 

" I'd rather preach anyway," said the min- 
ister as he walked back to the barrel and con- 
tinued his discourse, as if nothing had inter- 
rupted. 

The Frenchmen are staunch friends of the 
Pilot now. The coaUess figure, burning with 
righteous indignation, powerful in right and 
fearlessly standing for his beliefs, won the 
admiration of his antagonists. 

In those early days the decorum of the 
bunk house during service was picturesquely 
free and easy. The audience sat with hats 
on, smoked pipes, played cards or followed 
their changing feincy. The service is more 
formal now — the men wish it so. Hats are 
absent, pipes have disappeared and the 
solemnity is seldom broken. Last winter 
a Frenchman refused to remove his hat and 
an Irish lumberjack took him by the shoul- 
ders, shook him like a rat and kicked him out 
of the shanty. 

" Listen to me 1 we're goin' to have peace 
in this camp," said the sturdy Irishman to 
the crew. ■ "If anybody disputes it, just start 
somethin'. Now, let her go, preacher I 
I'll keep order while you do your little spiel." 

" The boys " are realizing that this service 



»i by Google 



204 The Parish of The Pines 

is theirs. To " rough house " the meeting is 
to ofEeitd them ; consequently a more peace- 
ful condition has come. To interrupt the 
speaker, because one does not agree with 
him, is of course proper ; and if the animus is 
not too strong, adds to the interest of the 
meeting. Then consummate skill on the 
part of the minister is required to keep the 
meeting in its proper channel. ]im the So- 
cialist, for instance, delighted in arguments. 
The Pilot " looked good to him " ; so he in- 
terrupted the sermon with questions, and 
showed his contempt for religion by unwise 
remarlcs and irritating interjections. 

" Now, my friend," said the Sky Pilot, at 
length, "if you'll wait until I am through, 
I'll see that you have your turn ; but if you 
won't wait, come down and take your chance 
first, for the two of us can't talk at once." 

The smiling remark had the desired eSect. 
Higgins finished in peace, then beckoned 
Jim to take charge. Immediately there was 
an uproar : for Jim the Socialist was too argu- 
mentative for his own good, and the men dis- 
liked him. * 

But Higgins took his part: "You have 
listened to me ; now hear one of your fellow 
workers. I'd like to hear him myselt" 

Jim the Socialist rushed into his speech. 



»i by Google 



The Barriers of Prejudice 205 

leaped over his introductioD and landed in 
the heat ol discourse. Every institutioD un- 
fortunate enough to possess a history was 
unsparingly condemned ; all charities reeked 
with vicious motives ; each philanthropy wore 
a masquerade and the church, religion and 
ministers were the disguised instruments of 
iheir political boss, the devil. Jim felt so 
cock-sure of his embellished facts and logic 
that he diallenged any minister to answer the 
argument None of die ministers forty miles 
away took up the challenge ; so Higgins 
came to thar defense. 

" If you will answer honestly three ques- 
tions, I will honestly try to answer any ques- 
tions you wish to ask me," said Higgins, 
stepping to the centre of the floor. 

Calls came from all parts of the room : 

" Thafs fair." 

" Let her go ; we're the jury." 

" Now we're loggin' on good ice." 

Higg^Ds began : " Do you know the prin- 
ciples of the Christian religion?" 

"No; and I don't care to know 'em," 
replied Jim contemptuously. 

"Then," said Higgins, "you are hardly 
capable of passing criticism on the religion of 
Jesus Christ. Again, are you acquainted 
with the work the churches are trying to 



»i by Google 



2o6 The Parish of The Pines 

accomplish and are accomplishing in the 
world ? If so, tell us about iL" 

The Socialist made a few incoherent re- 
marks, and waited for the next question, 
hoping it would require an easier answer. 

" Now here's the last question," said the 
missionary. "Answer it honestly. How 
many ministers are you personally ac- 
quainted with ? " 

" I don't know any but you," admitted the 
man. 

"Then jrou have to judge the ministry by 
me ; and iiaven't I always toted square widi 
you boys ? Answer up, anybody I " 

The answer was a loud afSrmative. 

" I'm the only part of the church you know, 
Jim. Am I not trying to make you bettsx 
men?" 

" The Ijoys " did not wait for Jim's answer. 
A hearty "yea" came from every comer. 

"I teach the principles of Christianity," 
continued Higgins ; " and if you follow these 
principles won't you be cleaner, more decent 
citizens ? What do you say, boys ? Are the 
ministers and Christianity helping the work- 
ing men ? You're the jury." 

The cheer that greeted the question was a 
roar of agreement. Out of the silence follow- 
ing came the voice of a top bunker : 



»i by Google 



The Barriers of Prejudice 207 

" Acquitted t Jim the Socialist pays the 
costs and is soaked ten days on the rock pile." 

Id after days whenever Jim the Socialist 
started to exploit his new theories some one 
was sure to silence him by exclaiming, 
" Bring on the Sky Pilot to ask a few ques- 
tions I" 

Prejudice generally lends itself to analysis. 
In Tom Gimmell's case the ground of prej- 
udice remains a secret He would not speak 
to the Pilot, called him (behind his back) a 
grafter, a fool, a wind-jammer, and added to 
these mild, innocuous tides strong and unwise 
words. Higgins' chance came without seek- 
ing: the saloon men unconsciously played 
into the missionary's hand. They kicked 
Tom Gimmell out on a cold night when he 
was hungry and spent and tired — all this 
after Tom Gimmell had generously thrown 
his money over their liquor-reeking bar. 

Higgins opportunely happened along. 

Tom Gimmell hated to do it His drink- 
flushed face added colour as he asked assist- 
ance from the man he had cursed and belied ; 
but he was hungry, needy and in the extrem- 
ity of cold. 

"And you gave to him ?" asked a friend 
who heard of it 



»i by Google 



2o8 The Parish of The Pines 

" Sure I did ! " answered the matter-of-fact 
Higgins. " When God gives me a chance 
to help a man, do you think I'd turn it 
down ? " 

"The boys" in the camp would like to 
know why Tom Gimmell " eats out of Hig- 
gins' hand " now I 

It is natural for the rigid Catholics to feel 
prejudice ag^nst Protestant work. The 
Protestants in the camps would show the 
same sphit if the services took the Catholic 
form. But the mission must be carried on 
through the churches whose form of worship 
is simple, or be left undone, for elaborate 
ceremonies are not successful in a camp 
environment Mike Sullivan (that name 
would took strange on a Protestant church 
roll) was no bigot. He appreciated the idea 
that all churches were striving to please God 
and reach the same heaven. 

" These many churches don't bother me," 
he said. " I think I get the idea of it It's 
like this: these camps around here are all 
workin' for one company. O'Brien is push 
on section nine, Johnson's boss at Camp 2 
on fourteen. Kirk runs the north half of 
twenty-six and White sees to the cuttin' on 
thirty-five. Every gang lands its stuff in the 



»i by Google 




»i by Google 



by Google 



The Barriers of Prejudice 209 

same lake and in the spring they'll make the 
drive together down the river. We're all 
paid for gettin' out logs and the lumber king 
in Minneapolis foots the bills for the outfits. 
Now what's the use of jawin' if the push on 
thirty-five wears a different kind of shirt than 
the push in our camp ? Logs is what the 
Minneapolis msin wants ; and he doesn't care 
how them different foremen skid, so long as 
they land the stuff. That's my way of lookin' 
at the churches." 

The missionaries have presented the Gospel 
with a strong-arm accompaniment. They 
have delivered a loving message with vocal 
and muscular persuasiveness, attaining un- 
usual results through this unusual union of 
forces. They have preached, fought and 
loved their jray into the hearts of their pa- 
rishioners, gaining and holding their respect 
by single-hearted devotion. The work has 
proved itself and is understood and appreci- 
ated by men of all persuasions. Many of the 
Catholics are deeply interested in its progress. 
They know it does not strive to make Prot- 
estants — but men, through the cleansing 
power of Calvary's cross. 

" Is the camp missionary work accomplish- 
ing anything? " I asked a contractor. 

" Well, rather ! Some of the jacks are 



»i by Google 



210 The Parish of The Pines 

savin' money, takin' occasional baths, an' can 
pass a saloon without battin' an eye. Ain't 
these results ? " 

I nodded assent 

Ufe stories weave a stronger argument 
than abstract thought The tales of every- 
day life bear their own evidence. Changed 
men are incontestable logic to which even 
prejudice yields. The converted men, whose 
past and present are well known, are the 
great factors which clear the ground of ob- 
stacles and open the way for more successful 
missionary work. A life is a fact and prej- 
udice cannot withstand it In a Red River 
camp the bunk-house men were discussing 
Jerry the Squawman, a notorious lumberjack, 
who, each spring, had marked his exodus 
from the cutting with shameless abandon. 

" The preachers got Jerry an' got him good 
an' plenty," said Bear-Grease Hibbs. 

"Got him? How?" 

" Got him converted," replied Bear-Grease, 
" whatever that is. I know if s a decent sort 
o' thing anyhow." 

" How so ? " asked Paddy the teamster. 
" Spin out the new yarn." 

Bear-Grease, happy to occupy the centre 
of the stage, slowly filled his pipe, struck a 
match, puffed a few moments, then settled 



»i by Google 



The Barriers of Prejudice 2 1 1 

himself comfortably on the " deacons' seat " 
before he began. 

"No need to muckrake Jerry the Squaw- 
man — his record is writ in the court-house an' 
all over the face o' the north woods. He was 
slower than the wrath o' God in morals an' 
quicker than hell to walk the broad road. 
He's workin' over on section 34 in Camp 7 
this winter ; an' I was up that way 'bout 
Christmas time, an' I didn't know Jerry when 
I met Iiim, he looked so decent an' respect- 
able an' washed like. But he knowed me. 
I ain't changed any to notice. An' he liailed 
me. He looked so clean I thought he'd 
turned gambler, but I found out he'd got re- 
ligion instead. He told me all about it ' A 
change o' heart,' he said, an' ' new affections ' 
an' a lot o' other stufi too much for yours 
truly. I went home with Jerry an' right 
here I want to register that Jerry is treatin' 
that old squaw o* hisn to faith, hope an' 
charity an' a lot o' other good things never 
mentioned in the ten commandments. They 
had an organ in the house, an' one o' the girls 
picked out a tune for me. She's takin' music 
lessons. The others are goin' to school an' 
looked as clean as new ice. I guess Jerry 
has got religion all right, for when we went 
out the next momin' he kissed the old squaw 



»i by Google 



2 1 2 The Parish of The Pines 

an' she showed she was used to it One o' 
the kids told me that things was different 
since pop got religion, but it wasn't a neces- 
sary remark, for a blind man could see that 
old Jerry is on a new trail. He's got religioa 
good an' plenty. It must have took an all 
ftred lot to reorganize Jerry, but it's done the 
job." 

" I've seen him too," remarked the black- 
smith. " Seen him on Christmas eve an' he 
was sober. He was out buyin' Christmas 
junk for them half-breeds o' his." 

"Well, don't that beat four o' a kind I" 
ejaculated Paddy the teamster. "To think 
that a preacher's line o* talk can turn the re- 
formin' trick after all the county officers, paid 
an' elected an' sworn to do sich, couldn't 
keep him on the reservation." 

"This religion is a powerful sort o' medi- 
cine," added Bear-Grease Hibbs ; " an* the 
sworn testimonials is some convincin'." 

Whitehall, an official of a large lumber 
company, had written a letter opposing the 
work of the missionaries. He was not ac- 
quainted with the work done. Why he an- 
tagonized can only he guessed. Two years 
afterwards, while dining at a hotel, Higgins 
sat at the table with several prosperous look- 



»i by Google 



The Barriers of Prejudice 2 1 3 

ingf men. One of them knew Higgins and 

entered into conversation. 

" Are you doing any good in the camps ? " 
asked a stranger opposite. 
, " We have every reason to be encouraged," 
replied the missionary. 

" Be specihc," suggested the questioner 
with slight irritation. " Name one man who 
has been converted." 

" There's Somberger, Al More, Bill C " 

" Did you say Somberger? John Somber- 
ger ? " interrupted the stranger. 

" Yes. Do you know him ? " 

"Do I? He was one of our cooks — as 
dranken a bum as ever shot a biscuit Drank 
all the lemon extract, Jamaica ginger and 
everything containing alcohol. And you 
say he is converted ? That's hard to be- 
lieve." 

" The next time you go to Big Forks," 
said Higgins, "drop into the Presbyterian 
church tiiere and hear him preach. He has 
charge of that church and cares for the camps 
near the town." 

" Converted and preaching I Well, some 
things are hard to explain," said the man, 
who then introduced himself. It was the offi- 
cial who had written the letter against the 
missionary work. 



»i by Google 



214 The Parish of The Pines 

The best testimony to the Logging Camp 
Mission is the lives of men made better. 
Prejudice loses its force in the presence of 
living, redeemed men. While waiting for a 
train at Cass Lake, Minnesota, I made the 
acquaintance of Mr. Thomas Nary, a man 
whose years of extensive logging have placed 
him among the experts in the lumber indus- 
try. Large interests are handled by him; 
hundreds of men are in the camps he over- 
sees. We talked of logging and the work 
of Frank Higgins among the lumberjacks. 
The following is an unsolicited testimonial : 
"When Mr. Higgins first asked to holdserv' 
ices in our camps, I told him it was useless. 
He persisted in his request and I reluctandy 
granted permission. I felt, however, that 
nothing could help the men. I have changed 
my opinion, for Higgins' work has intro- 
duced new possibilities. In such is the hope 
of the lumberjacks. A few more men like 
Frank Higgins and we would have less hell 
in the pineries." 



»i by Google 



XVIII 

HIGGINS' UEUTENANTS 

WAS the Apostle Paul retumiagfrom 
the lumber camps of Asia Minor 
when he wished to " be all things 
to all men," or was he watching the ancient 
lumberjacks pour into the Athenian Bowery 
after a season's cutting on god-4eserted 
Olympus? Whatever the father of the 
thought, it matters not ; it is enough to know 
that he expressed a principle essential to suc- 
cessful missionary work in the lumber camps. 
Paul appreciated versatility, and this the suc- 
cessful camp missionary must possess — he 
must be preacher, pastor, brother and guard- 
ian to his flock, for the day often dawns that 
claims them all. A converted ward politi- 
cian, in my opinion, comes nearest to the 
type of preacher who "makes good " in the 
forest Does any one know of such at large 7 
An experimental knowledge of men in the 
rough and a personal acquaintance with the 
gentle Jesus tnings results. 



»i by Google 



2i6 The Parish of The Pines 

College men of the type who have tried 
the camp work have scarcely met the re- 
quirements. The sentimental religionists, 
whose hearts bled for the needy fields, have 
rushed in with eagerness and hurried out 
with disgust Mr. Brown, belonging to this 
latter class, was consumed with enthusiasm 
and presented himself to the Pilot 

" I have an unmistakable call to this partic- 
ular work. Let me preach to the men." 

" Are you sure God calls you ? " asked 
Higgins, who somehow doubted it , 

" I am sure He calls me." 

"Well, if you're sure He wants you to 
work here, it's up to me to give you a 
chance," said Higgins, and he assigned him 
a group of camps. 

Brown, jubilant, entered the woods, and 
Higgins prayed he would last 

A lew days later they met again. 

" Mr. Higgins, I shall have to resign horn 
this work," said Mr. Brown ; " it is so un- 
sanitary." 

" That* s what I've always claimed ; it isn't 
a bit clean," assented the experienced one. 

" I don't believe," said Brown, and his 
flesh twitched nervously, " that God calls any 
man to sleep in infested bunks." 

"You're right, Brown. God doesn't call 



»i by Google 



Higgins' Lieutenants 217 

any man for such work. If He did He'd 
make the mistake of calling fellows who can't 
stand a little inconvenience. So you don't 
like it? Well, don't blame the Lord. He 
evidently didn't call you. You made the mis- 
take in the hrst place." 

And so the man with the "unmistakable 
call " turned towards clean sheets and porce- 
lain bath tubs and the camps knew him no 
more. 

" How to reach the camps was my prob- 
lem," said Higgins, speaking about the mis- 
sion. " My own work was only a drop in 
the bucket I prayed over the matter. I 
thought over it. One day I read a speech 
of General William Booth's which pardy an- 
swered my question. He was telling how he 
got his officers from his converts and I saw 
the point. 1 began to watch the converted 
lumberjacks and prayed God to open my 
eyes so I could see straight Five of my 
best workers are meri who were formerly 
lumberjacks." 

These men have passed through the life of 
the woodsmen and are related to them by a 
common experience. Knowing the depths, 
it is easier for them to lend a hand to the 
men in the pit. A missionary is given a 
group of camps convenient to each other 



»i by Google 



2i8 The Parish of The Pines 

and accessible by railroad. Every night he 
preaches to a difierent audience of from sixty 
to one hundred and sixty men and on Sun- 
day he visits three camps. Sometimes a 
chaplain ministers to a group of twenty and 
it takes him three weeks to make the circuit 
Where the group is smaller each camp has 
two services a month. The missionary has 
from a thousand to two thousand parishioners 
and is their only link to the religious world. 

Since the province of this book is to give 
a view of the parish of the pines, it is fitting 
that mention should be made of some of the 
men who labour with Frank Higgins, and 
who, like him, have proved their fitness for 
this unique field. 

John Somberger would require a chapter 
simply to introduce him ; and to tell the story 
of his life, before and after conversion, can- 
not be attempted here. Prize-fighter, bar- 
tender, bouncer, "booze-fighter" and almost 
anything else might be rightly attached to 
his name. As a pugilist he " met all comers " ; 
and seldom did the mighty middle-weight 
succumb to any until whiskey bowled him 
down and out This, however, did not occur 
until John had fought over one hundred ring 
batdes, not to mention his daily brawls in 



»i by Google 



Higgins' Lieutenants 219 

the barroom. Several bullets are still in his 
body and the scars of knife and ball will ac- 
company him to his grave. Later, as a bar- 
tender, he served himself and customers with 
liberality until he proved an expensive dis- 
grace to his employer. 

John next took up cooking in the camps. 
As long as he was sober few could equal 
him ; but John was not sober until all the 
" botded goods," whose body was alcoholic, 
had disappeared from the shelves. In one 
of his sprees Somberger " beat up " a man 
so badly that he left him for dead and fled 
into the interior where he secured work as a 
swamper (the lowest paid labour) and hid 
under an assumed name. Higgins came to 
the camp and preached. After service John 
invited the preacher to walk with him and 
during that walk was converted. Somberger 
told the Pilot the whole story of his shade 
and night 

" Before I can do anything more for you I 
must see the county offidals," said Higgins. 
" Remain where you are until I return." 
Higgins travelled to the distant county seat 
and saw the sheriff and county attorney. 
"John Somberger is a converted man," said 
he. " Give him to me for six months and if 
he does not prove a respectable dtizen I will 



»i by Google 



220 The Parish of The Pines 

turn him over to you then ; but if he is on 
the level you must quash the indictment" 

" Not on your life I " said the officials, de- 
terminedly. " 1^8 the old religious gag and 
it won't go down with us." 

"Then find him and you have him," 
laconically returned the preacher. " I won't 
produce him and you can't make me." 

The offidals finally agreed to the pact. 
Somberger proved that he was a new man in 
Christ Jesus and the indictments werequashed. 

Zealous for sin in the past, Somberger was 
now as zealous for righteousness. Higg^ns 
watched him, hoping John would be led into 
the work, but did not suggest the idea. At 
the end of three years he wrote the convert 
asking him to consider the mission work as 
a vocation. On the same day Somberger 
mailed a letter to Higgins offering himself 
for the work. The new recmit was placed 
in charge of the camps around Big Forks and 
every other week he held meetings in the 
village. A church was organized there with 
twenty-eight members and it has grown 
steadily in spite of opposition from the saloon 
element. A few extracts from Somberger's 
letters to his chief reveal the spirit of the 



»i by Google 



Higgins' Lieutenants 22 1 

". . . . Some of the beer-soaked, 
drunken fiends tried to double cross me 
but they found there is a single cross planted 
firmly on my church. . . . Some of them 
here are so much meaner than the devil wants 
them to be that they have put his stocks 
away below par and many are turning to 
the church in the panic." 

From another letter : 

" Last Monday I backslid long enough to 
challenge any of them" — the saloon men 
referred to above — " to step out in the street, 
one at a time or shut their mouths. . . . 
They all flunked out and tried to blame it on 
each other. It was a most blessed thing for 
the church here. Some of the folks wanted 
me to have them arrested for slander but I 
asked the church-members to just excuse 
their pastor for backsliding for a few minutes 
and I would settle the trouble without the 
cost of court, unless it was court-plaster, and 
there has tieen no need of either." 

In another letter in which he is urging Mr. 
Higgins to visit the church and get it prop- 
erly organized he says : 

" You know when I ask anj^thing of you or 
the Lord, I need it ... I bummed a 
box stove and pipes, an organ (and it's a 
good one) and boards for a platform and 



»i by Google 



222 The Parish of The Pines 

pulpit and seats. . . . If you should drop 
into Jessie Junction to-morrow night you 
would sit up and take notice. I will be there 
with my choir of four women and five men, 
holding service. We are going down on a 
hand car and back the same evening, a trip 
of twenty-eight mUes, to preach the Gospel 
to fifty or sixty poor sinners. ... I led 
a poor old fellow to Jesus to-day, and he will 
stick, too. . . . Three weeks ago I got 
the keys of the jaJI and talked and prayed 
with a fellow that I had tried to get to help 
me and some others rob a bank about two 
months before my conversion. Praise God 
for the happiness I felt in trying to lead him 
to Christ." 

Somberger served the Big Forks church 
and the camps around the village for three 
years, proving the power of God by the 
winning of souls. He is now located at 
Virginia. 

Jack McCall, an old time lumberjack, 
resided at Kalamazoo, Michigan. He had 
been over the seamy way of sin. After his 
conversion he wished to return to the camps as 
a living testimonial of God's grace. While 
McCall pondered the problem in Kalamazoo, 
Higgins visited Detroit and presented the 



»i by Google 



Higgins' Lieutenants 223 

cause of the lumberjacks. Higgins' story- 
made good newspaper " stuff" and was given 
large space. Jack McCall read it, noted that 
Higgins was on his way to Chicago and 
wrote to him at the General Delivery there. 
For the hrst time in his many visits to that 
dty, Higgins called at the General Delivery 
for his mail and another worker was found. 

Was it chance ? 

Jack McCall has been in the work seveml 
years and is a " winner." He is most practi- 
cal, fears nothing, never hesitates ; his per- 
sonality and his perseverance carry him over 
difficulties. His parish is around Cloquet 
and he seldom misses holding daily services. 
During the winter he reaches two thousand 
four hundred men each month. Many con- 
versions have crowned his labours. Two 
years ago a lumberjack, who had come to 
the woods to hide his identity after disgrac- 
ing himself and friends, was converted in a 
camp where Jack McCall preached. He did 
not communicate with his relatives after his 
conversion, for he wished to prove himself 
before raising their hopes. 

Last winter the convert was prostrated by 
illness. McCall visited him, and seeing the 
need of better attention, took him to Cloquet 
and cared for him in his own home until 



»i by Google 



224 The Parish of The Pines 

death came. The parents were notified and 
journeyed north to claim the body. When 
they heard the story of the wanderer's conver- 
sion, his plucky fight against many odds 
and his victorious death, it brought joy and 
solace to their hearts and on departing they 
gratefully presented the missionary with the 
bo/s wages as a personal gift. McCall took 
the one hundred and fifty dollars and de- 
posited it in the bank as a fund with which to 
buy fruit for the woodsmen who languish in 
the hospitals — a worthy cause deserving large 
assistance. 
Speaking of his work, McCall said : 
"When I am in the woods I am not a 
Presbyterian, a Methodist or any other de- 
nominationalist I am there to show the 
men how to get right with God and live 
right The word of God coming from a 
lumberjack goes far with the woodsmen." 

Mrs. Jack McCall is the hospital visitor for 
the camp mission. The presence of this 
woman from the outside world cheers the 
lonely fellows in the wards and her interest 
is an aid to reformation. The memory of 
many a sick lumberjack has wandered back 
to mother while Mrs. McCall has comforted 
and councilled. The help of a good woman 
has given birth to hope. 



»i by Google 



Higgins' Lieutenants 225 

On the Smith and Alger line Matt Daley 
has preached for the last three years, proving 
himself a valuable worker. His field of oper- 
ations is in Lake and Cook Counties, a vast 
territory with few settlements. There is little 
organized church work in his parish. To 
meet the needs of the settlers Daley has 
established preaching points which he visits 
in connection with his camp work. The 
" blind piggers " know and fear Daley, for 
he has closed several of their illegal liquor 
holes ; and his Irish personality as well as 
his type of Christianity is felt throughout his 
woods parish. 

■ Daley, the lumberjack, answered to the 
name of " Bucket House Blackey." He was 
in the gutter then : now he is clean and 
hailed as a brother beloved. During the 
winter he travels, mostiy on foot, over three 
thousand miles in his joumeyings from camp 
to camp. 

" One of the camps refused to admit 
me, so I spent the night in the woods," he 
writes, " with God and the wolves for com- 
pany." 

Last winter Daley had the joy of reuniting 
four families and finding nearly two-score 
men and boys who were lost to their rela- 
tives. When tired from his strenuous camp 



»i by Google 



226 The Parish of The Pines 

labours, be drops into the bethel m Duluth 
and rests by working with and preaching to 
the "down-and-outs " who assemble there. 

Several years ago Frank Higg^ preached 
in a camp near Hibbing. So far as the 
preacher knew the service brought no re- 
sults, but Martin Johnson, in the secrecy of 
his heart, gave himself to God. Johnson 
finished the winter in the woods. The next 
year he went to Moody Institute for study. 
When he left the Institute it was with the in- 
tention of preaching in the lumber camps but 
with no financial support in sight He de- 
cided to talk it over with the Y. M. C. A. 
secretaries in Chicago, hoping they might 
give him assistance. They placed him in 
communication with Frank Higgins; and 
when Johnson met the Pilot he recognized 
him as the man who had led him to Christ. 
Until then he had not known his name. 

For a time Johnson served the camps 
along the Iron Range Railroad, where he 
won his way by earnest, conscientious effort. 
When Somberger was transferred from the 
Big Forks field to Virginia, Martin Johnson 
stepped into his place and has met with suc- 
cess in the mission church and in the sur- 
rounding camps. 



»i by Google 



Higgins' Lieutenants 227 

In addition to the men mentioned above, 
a number of neighbouring pastors have taken 
camps under their care. Each missionary 
visits from twenty to thirty camps a month 
and preaches to about twenty-two hundred 
men. As a result of these services there are 
many requests for prayer and many known 
conversions. Other duties fall to the mis- 
sionary's lot ; he holds services for the set- 
tlers, distributes Testaments, literature and 
tracts, writes letters for the illiterate and 
visits the lumberjacks in the hospitals. One 
of the missionaries, an unordained man, built 
up a little church in connection with his camp 
work. The mission prospered. Four adults 
asked to be admitted into church-member- 
ship. The missionary knew how to lead 
men to Christ but was deficient in church 
government. 

" Have you been baptized ? " he asked, — 
"that's one of the requirements for admis- 
sion," he added in explanation. 

They shook their heads. 

At the next gathering of the faithful the 
camp worker solemnly baptized the converts 
and publicly received them into the church, 
innocent of any irregularities. 

The pastor-at-large, who oversees the 
mission churches, visited the field' shortly 



»i by Google 



228 The Parish of The Pines 

aftenrards and heard (f the incident He 
was puzzled. 

" Did you know that an unordained man is 
not allowed to baptize and receive members 
into th e church ? " 
I " That" s news to me," admitted the camp 
missionary innocently ; " but if there's any- 
thing irregular about this thing we'll have to 
make it right. I'll round them up for you. 
There's the river. You can put the finishing 
touches on thena. They have the grace of 
God in their hearts already and a litde extra 
work won't hurt them a bit" 



1 worl 



These camp preachers are a force in the 
villages as well as in the forest If you 
asked them, "Should a minister go into 
politics?" their answer would be, "How 
can he keep out ? " They see the low element 
holding the reins of government and they 
fight constantly for better conditions. Many 
a corrupt office holder has reason to remem- 
ber the camp chaplains. In one of the wide 
open towns where " the doors of the saloons 
and gambling dens were ofl their hinges " 
some of the citizens clamoured for a change. 
A new mayor was elected. He had promised 
largely before election but suffered bom a 
poor memory. Naturally the advocates of a 



»i by Google 



Higgins' Lieuttnants 229 

clean town felt disappointed. A camp mis- 
sionary, who was a resident of the town, 
reminded the mayor of his prelection prom- 
ises. 

*' Everything is run in this town according 
to the law," declared the politician. 

"The gamblers still do business openly 
and the saloons are never closed," retorted 
the missionary. " I can prove that." 

This was too much for the mayor, who 
lost his temper and called the reformer a liar. 

That was too much lor the reformer, who 
promptly knocked the mayor down. 

" I couldn't get anything into his head," 
said the lumberjack preacher ; " so I put it in 
through his hide." 

The official was carried home on a dray 
and as he was being helped into the house 
he said : " I guess the preacher is a better 
man than I am." 

The remark, taken either way, was true. 

The lumberjacks are attached to Higgins 
personally and he is using this asset for the 
benefit of the camp chaplains. Whenever he 
meets an old friend he tries to instill loyalty for 
the cause. "Johnson is preaching up your 
way, Jack. I can't make all the camps now. 
Johnson and I are working together for the 
good of the boys. Give him a lift whenever 



»i by Google 



23© The Parish of The Pines 

you can. You're a friend of mine and any- 
thing you do for him is a lift for me." 

" I'll do what I can for him. Tell him I'm 
a friend of yours," is the invariable reply. 

And the friends of Higgins are the friends 
of his lieutenants. 



»i by Google 



XIX 
THE OLD INDIAN TREATY 

IN 1855, a treaty, involving a large part 
of northern Minnesota, was signed by 
the United States government and the 
Chippewa Indians, Article Seven provides 
that after the adoption of the treaty the laws 
prohibiting the sale of liquor in Indian 
territory shall continue on all lands ceded to 
the United States. About three years ago 
the attention of the Interior Department in 
Washington was called to the treaty and to 
the tact that the open saloons in this territory 
were in direct violation of it William E. 
Johnson, a federal police ofiFicer entrusted 
with the enforcement of the law prohibiting 
the sale of liquor to Indians, was sent to 
Minnesota. 

William E. Johnson had been in the govern- 
ment service for five years ; these years con- 
stitute one of the most heroic chapters in the 
history of American law enforcement His 
first work had been in Indian Territory. 
When he came to Minnesota he closed four 
hundred saloons, most of them in the logging 
a3' 



»i by Google 



232 The Parish of The Pines 

districts. It is of more than passing interest 
to note that Johnson's services have called 
out all the enmity and venom of the liquor 
traffic and that five of his deputies have been 
murdered while pursuing their lawful task. 
"Pussyfoot" Johnson, as his enemies call 
him, has long known that a price of three 
thousand dollars has been ofiered for his as- 
sassination. 

Naturally the resurrection of this slumber- 
ing treaty caused alarm in the liquor ranks. 
When the saloons were closed by the gov- 
ernment, and kept closed, the dealers were 
filled with consternation. It has been my 
privilege to visit the lumber districts during 
the wide open policy and also during " the I 

drought." A trip on the logging trains when | 

the saloons were running was a series of 
drunken fights, a bedlam of noise, a canrival~~"^ 
of oaths and a deluge of liquor : during the ^ 

dry period the men were orderly and their 
hilarity was the outcome of good health, not 
the fever of poisoned humanity. 

The liquor question, under these new con- 
ditions, was discussed by the woodsmen more 
than any other topic ; on the trains, in the 
bunk houses and at the noon lunch grounds 
it was the absorbing subject Where one 
feivoured the opening of the saloons, twenty 



»i by Google 



The Old Indian Treaty 233 

were on the other side. Even the old topers 
declared the closing a good thing and re- 
joiced that for once they were sure of victory 
over appetite because of the absence of 
liquor. Every contractor to whom I men- 
tioned the topic said that a dry policy meant 
money to him, giving him better worlcmen 
and less of camp-jumping. 

But the whiskey element never sleeps. Its 
attorneys were busy in Washington and its 
agents went into the camps persuading the 
men to sign petitions asldng the government 
for a more liberal ruling on the Indian treaty. 
They were busy night and day, in town and 
village, in near-by camp and forest-hidden 
bunk house. One of their representatives 
came to the camp over which Mike Grogan 
was foreman. Mike had been a heavy 
drinker and because of his habits his family 
had deserted him. Higgins was the personal 
instrument in the reformation of Mike and 
the welder of the feimily -chain. When the 
saloon man entered Mike's camp with the 
petition Mike conducted him to the sleeping 
apartments of the men and introduced him, 
ending his speech with the anti-climax : 

"What would our Pilot think of us if he 
seen our names on a paper like that ? I've 
told the men what you want. Now get out 



»i by Google 



234 The Parish of The Pines 

of here aod take your hell-bred petition with 
you ! " 

It is worthy of notice that at the next camp 
where he had a free hand the petitioner was 
able to secure only three signatures in favour 
of the open saloon. 

Fraolc Higgins has ever been an enemy 
of the liquor traffic He has fought the evil 
from the beginning and is still " od the job." 
When he is defeated he smiles and goes at 
it again. "That's Higgins' way," said a 
saloon man to me ; " he holds no grudge when 
whipped and doesn't rub it in when he wins." 
Higgins has denounced the men who were 
robbing the lumberjacks, naming them in his 
public addresses, and fearlessly to their faces 
giving the same condemnation. Naturally 
he has made enemies ; but many of those he 
censured admire his honesty and are his 
staunch friends. 

A. H. Larson, a deputy special officer in 
the United States Indian service, said to 
Higgins in the presence of the writer, " You 
have done good work through this section in 
arousing public sentiment, and we are just 
helping your work along by making impossi- 
ble the conditions that have been too common 
in the woods." 



»i by Google 



The Old Indian Treaty 235 

When Deer River was made to obey the 
law, Frank Higgins was honoured by the 
charges of the saloon men that he was the 
cause of the change. The liquor newspapers 
added much to his credit by denouncing him 
and the mission he represents. It was inter- 
esting reading to friend and foe and produced 
more good than harm. 

Higgins allowed them to write to their 
heart's content, read what they wrote, and an- 
swered itwith atwinkle that no newspaper man 
has ever been able to do other than broaden. 

The liquor element threatened to shoot him 
on sight, but when he next visited Deer 
River in the round of duty his enemies found 
that Higgins could fight but had not learned 
to run. He told them : 

" When hell opens its mouth in the Judg-\ 
ment Day it won't be any rottener than Deer 
River was. My only regret is that I can't 
claim the credit of turning the closing trick, 
but I'm mighty pleased to be blamed for a 
job like this." 

John Somberger, one of the camp mis- 
sionaries, visited a closed town. A saloon 
man said to him : " When your man Hig- 
gins comes this way we'll do him up for this. 
He's ruined our business an' he'll get what* s 
comin' to him." 



»i by Google 



236 The Parish of The Pines 

Soraberger, as has been related, had been 
a prize-fighter before his conversion. His 
fighting blood arose while the liquor man 
threatened and maligned his chief. 

" Don't wait for Higgins," said John, shak- 
ing the fist of many batdes under the saloon 
man's nose. " I'm his representative here just 
now. Come and take it out on me. We're 
all working for the same cause an* if you 
want to take a crack at the logging camp 
mission I'm about as handy as any part of it" 

"I felt kind of disappointed," said John 
when teUing about it later. " He was only 
blowing off steam, knowing that Higgins 
was in another county — he was a long-range 
fighter. I used to fight with fists for the 
devil and why shouldn't I do a little for God 

Fd Higgins when a good occasion like that 
lis for it ? " 
Why shouldn't he? 

For several months the dosed policy pre- 
vailed in northern Minnesota, then came the 
victory for hell's tenth legion. It was ruled 
that the intent of the treaty was to the land 
occupied by the Indians and therefore was to 
be applied only to the reservations as they 
now exist. The " drought " was broken : the 
saloons opened — but not so many. The 



»i by Google 



The Old Indian Treaty 237 

saloon men bad learned that public sentiment 
may at any dme dose their places and keep 
them closed. More care is exercised than 
heretofore. The motto is, " Be careful." 
Minnesota has recendy passed a law allow- ' 
ing but one saloon to each five hundred m- 
habitants in a town ; this brightens the pros- 
pect, for if the saloons are once voted out of 
a municipality, even if it should revert to a 
liquor policy, the number will be materially 
reduced. 



»i by Google 



LOOKING AHEAD 

THE American nation, because of its 
youth, the largeness of its varied re- 
sources, its rapid development and 
steady growth of population, has unusual 
mission problems, requiring a speedy solu- 
tion. No other nation confronts such large 
demands. Here villages have been bom in 
a night and cities in a day. The material 
expansion has been so rapid that two thou- 
sand miles of frontier has been consumed in a 
century. This has intensified the problems 
of immigration, Mormonism, city and village 
evangelism, the neglected setdements and 
railway, mining and lumber camps — a heter- 
ogenous demand that staggers the imagina- 
tion and appals the faint hearted. In evan- 
gelizing the world we join with all the Chris- 
tian nations : in our urgent home missions we 
are humanly alone. The camps are only a 
part of our opportunity, but their appeal has 
probably met with less response than any of 
those mentioned. In the preceding chap- 
ters only the forest of Minnesota has been 
238 



»i by Google 



Looking Ahead 239 

considered. There for seventeen years the 
evangelizing effort has progressed : elsewhere 
little or nothing has been accomplished. 

The lumberjaclcs of the Pacific Coast, of 
New England, of the South Adantic States 
and the Central Southwest are of the same 
type as the woodsmen of the Northwest 
Everywhere the foresters are vigorous, bois- 
terous, red-blooded, willing men, picturesque 
in vice and lavish spenders in the carnival of 
sin. And everywhere the organized forces of 
righteousness have been indifferent to the 
rough, hardy fellows who have grown worse 
with the passing years. The villages near 
the camps, whether north or south, east or 
west, are new, free, open and lawless, with 
here and there an exception which proves 
that a lumber community can be God-fearing 
£md law-abiding. Saloons and their con- 
comitant evils flourish and immoral traffick- 
ers constandy harvest a large, ill-gotten gain. 

The average citizen considers lumbering 
of minor importance ; few realize that two- 
thirds of our states have each a yearly out- 
put of not less than one hundred million 
board feet Our annual production reaches 
thirty-five billion board feet ; and twelve 
thousand firms are engaged in logging, em- 
ploying approximately four hundred thou- 



»i by Google 



240 The Parish of The Pines 

sand men in the camps and nearly as many 
in the sawmills. The value of the product is 
from five to six hundred millions of dollars. 

Lumbering has followed the soft woods. 
The pine and spruce of New England held 
the lore until New York, in 1850, became the 
chief lumbering state. Ten years later Penn- 
sylvania was supreme in output ; then the 
white pine states of the Central Northwest — 
Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota — held 
the van from 1870 until 1905. Washington's 
vast forest was in the meantime receiving 
hordes of woodsmen and at the last named 
date it claimed first place with a cut of three 
billion, nine hundred and seventeen million 
board feet Washington still heads the list 
Six other states, Wisconsin, Louisiana, Min- 
nesota, Michigan, Arkansas, and , Pennsyl- 
vania each produce more than a billion feet 
of lumber yearly. Besides these named, the 
following states are prominent contributors 
to our supply : Oregon, North Carolina, Cali- 
fornia, Texas, Alabama, New York, Maine, 
Virginia, Georgia, West Virginia, Florida, 
Tennessee, South Carolina, Kentucky, Mis- 
sissippi, Indiana, New Hzunpshire, Ohio, 
Vermont Massachusetts, Idaho, Montana, 
Maryland, Iowa, Illinois. 

Minnesota stands fourth in the lumber in- 



»i by Google 



Looking Ahead 241 

dustry: in camp missionary effort it heads 
the list This state has from four hundred 
and fifty to five hundred camps and the mis- 
sionary force consists of seven men who 
reach about one hundred and fifty of these 
outposts. This suggests the broad field yet 
to be entered even in Minnesota and also the 
numberless camps in other states where the 
work should be done and done quickly. 
Minnesota should have at least twenty camp 
preachere and the forests of the nation need the 
services of not less than three hundred spe- 
cially picked men who would live and preach 
righteousness among the lumberjacks. 

The Board of Home Missions of the Pres- 
byterian Church is conducting, as far as can 
be learned, the only organized effort for the 
lumberjacks. Its present force consists of 
fifteen evangelists and one woman hospital 
visitor. Eight of these labour in Minnesota, 
four in Washington, two in Oregon and two 
in California. Besides the above, a few in- 
dividual churches in other denominations send 
workers into the camps near their parishes. 

The seventeen years of camp preaching in 
Minnesota has practically secured a hearing 
for the missionaries in every state of the 
union. The camp men are nomads and are 
now scattered in all parts of the land. The 



»i by Google 



242 The Parish of The Pines 

" old ttmers " know the value of the mission 
and lend their influence in the new fields. 
Then, too, the lumber companies appreciate 
the good that has been accomplished and 
will welcome the missionaries' advance. The 
timber lands of the west coast are largely 
owned by the same corporations that ex- 
ploited the forest adjacent to the great lakes 
and in the southern districts they are also in- 
terested. 

The work of the past hsis been pathfinding : 
we are now ready to build the highways. 

" In a Washington town where no religious 
organization was at work, I held service in a 
dance hall," said Frank Higgins. "There 
were seventy-five persons present, sixty of 
whom were woodsmen. After the meeting 
two lumberjacks hailed me : * Hello, Riot I 
We're from Minnesota. Heard you preach 
in the Clearwater Camps back there. Glad 
to see you. We're the ones that rustled the 
crowd for you to-night' " Higgins continued : 
" It is so wherever I go — the Minnesota boys 
are in all parts of the union and they want 
the camp preachers to visit them." 

A picture of the lumber district in the state 
of Washington is given in the appended let- 
ter from T. H. Simpson, a camp missionary. 
" in my first camp I had seventy-five men 



»i by Google 



Looking Ahead 243 

and the cook. I mention the cook because 
he is no man. He began to belittle the 
work, curse the preacher, and wound up by 
attempting to tell a certain story. ... I 
threatened to thrash the skunk and he kept 
still. ... An Industrial Worker of the 
World started to sing one of their hymns 
when we began service and a logger snatched 
the book from him and tore it with the corks 
of his shoes. When the Industrial Worker 
remonstrated, another fellow smashed bim in 
the eye. With these preliminaries we started 
the meeting and had a real good time. 

McC , the camp boss, is a minister's son. 

He attended the meeting and was quite en- 
thusiastic over it 1 was sorry he refused to 
keep the Industrial Worker. We walked 
back to town together and the Industrial 
Worker paid the bill for dinner. Now he 
wants me to come to their hall and speak 
some night 

*' I visited M by the sea and found a 

large shingle mill and s^moa cannery in 
operation. . . , Preached in an old sa- 
loon. . . . Walked five miles next 
day to a large logging and lumber mill 
camp. . . . Spent the day making 
seats in the dance hall whose floor suggested 
the text ; ' The feet of the wicked stand in 



»i by Google 



244 The Parish of The Pines 

slippery places.' . . . Saw the sheriff 
and jailer, who consented to let me preach to 
the prisoners. . . . Will try and visit 
them once a month. ... I located six 

camps within six miles of M . The field 

is too vast and the need too great for one 
man. There ought to be at least three. A 
man should have a companion with him 
once every six weeks. ... It would add 
strength to the work. . . . If I should visit 
ail the camps around here I could not touch 
. a camp oftener than twice a year. That is 
too thin and would do no particular good. 
We need to get acquainted with the boys 
and live into and become part of them. 

"I consider this work one of the most 
worthy under the church. A preacher can 
easily reach from two to three hundred men 
a week, men who never enter a church and 
never come under any influence but the 
vilest Many of the men are from the best 
homes back East Agitators, infidels, an- 
archists, doubters are abundant in the camps. 
These spread their death-dealing theories on 
all sides, and there is not a chance to escape 
except by the grace of God. Many of the 
men (have families in the towns and these 
families rarely receive any spiritual training. 
What a crop of unworthy citizens will arise 



»i by Google 



Looking Ahead^ 245 

should no restraining power be set forth. 
. . . This work, aside from the spiritual 
uplift it gives to individual souls, is one of 
the greatest for the preservation of the 
country. 

"Twelve boys wrote to their mothers on 
Mother's Day. Five of them bad never 
written before. I supplied the paper and 
envelopes and mailed the letters." 

The churches outside of the lumber regions 
have been strengthened far more than they 
dream through the mission to the camps. 
Famihes have been united, the lost found, 
wrongs righted and souls saved as a result 
of the sowing in the byways. The mission 
converts are found in all walks of life, in all 
parts of the nation. Men who have lost 
their grip invariably seek the solitudes. And 
what place promises more of forgetfulness 
than the distant forest where the clang of 
dvilization, the rush of business and the ties 
of the undesired past have not yet entered ? 
There is no.past in the pineries and no ques- 
tions are asked. Life is primitive, free, un- 
trammelled and simple. The disgraced and 
vanquished naturally seek its retreats. 

But if a life-producing motive is injected 
into these men they return where progress 
can be made and again take their places in 



»i by Google 



246 The Parish of The Pines 

the world's ranks. Down in Ohio, where 
Frank Higgins spoke of the camp work, a 
mother pressed his hand and said : *' The 
camp mission gave me back my two boys. 
They had tost faith in God and man, but 
through it were converted, became active 
Christians, and my old age is bright" In a 
Southern city a well-dressed, keen-faced 
business man handed Frank Higgins his 
neatly engraved card. Higgins read the 
name and waited for the stranger to speak. 
" The name doesn't suggest anything to 
you. Pilot ? Well, I don't wonder," added the 
stranger. " Take a good look at me and 
think back ten years." 

" It's one on me," said Higgins. " I can't 
remember any Henry Reynolds." 

Henry Reynolds laughed. 

" I suppose you remember ' Boot Reynolds ' 
of the Red River camps? Well, I'm the 
man I" 

That afternoon in the Y. M. C. A., Henry 
Reynolds, the trusted salesman of a prom- 
inent diamond house, sat with the missionary 
on the platform. After the Pilot had finished 
his address the ex-lumberjack told the au- 
dience how the power of God found him in 
a Northern logging camp, how it changed 
his life, removed the chains of the evil yester- 



»i by Google 



Looking Ahead 247 

days and kept him through the pleasant 
yeais that foUoved. 

Today we serve the lumberjacks ; to-mor- 
row it will be the settlers that will demand 
our attention. With the felling of the trees 
begins the transition from forest to iana, for 
where the soil is fertile men will build their 
homes. These new settlements cannot pro- 
vide themselves with religious services ; they 
are not financially able. The outside world 
must come to their assistance. In the camp 
chaplains the church has an acceptable 
agency by which scores of hamlets and thou- 
sands of scattered settlers can be reached. 
By multiplying their numbers these regions 
can be secured for God ; and the nation can 
be fortified with a Christian citizenship. 
Schoolhouses, dance halls, bunk houses 
must become the seats of future churches if 
the scattered communities are to hold cit- 
izens of integrity. The time for foundation 
work is at the beginning. 

"StreDgthen ye the weak hands aad confirm 
the feeble knees." 



Primed a tH aniUi Suia 



/;,,'""«'^'' ■■''■;■■ ■'■A^oogic 



by Google 



lim broolu. TbcT tuTB tbat iimplidt* ■ _,^ 

which irreiiitiblr reoiinda the reader of Andcnou ■! 



MARY STEWART 

Once upon a Time Tales 

Wth "The Way to Once-Upon-A-Time*- by Henr? 
van Dyke. Decorated and Illustrated by Griselda 
M. McClure. lamo, cloth, net $1.25. 

The»e real fairy tales br the author of "Tell He a Tro« 
Storj'- are fre»h_ a* muntain br«ic« and_clMi *a_Ihe water 

& 

MRS. 1. r. THURSTON 

The Scout Master of Troop 5 

By the author of "The Bishop's Shadow." lUns- 
trated, lamo, cloth, net $i.oo. 

Mri. IhurBion demointr»ied 10 the delight of tbfnutndi 
In '"Ihe Biahop'a Shadow" that ahe knew the heart of a bor 
u few other wrilera to-dar do. She haa agiiu proved her 
right to be ooneidered a toaater interpreter of (he boj miad 
Id thi> Boy Scout atorj. It hai action a-plenty, U frelh, 
• breezy and the style ia straigthaway and clear cut. 

COLTON MAYNARD 

Elliott Gray, Jr. 

A Chronicle of School Life at Arlingtoa Net $ixxx 

"Arliojrton" u DO other than HotchldSB School, and many 
af the inddenta in tbia faacinatina atorjr are founded upon 
actual fact. Prof. William Lyon Phelps of Yale aaya: "The 
atoty ia very iutcrealing, and it ia true to the beat thinga 
in American ichool boy school ilfe." 

PELL'S BIBLE STORIES 
Illustrated, izmo, cloth, each net 35c 

The Story of Jesus for Little People 

A very direct appeal Ia nude to the child aouL Tfca 

purpoac ia to «ntly, ^inningly draw the child tovard the 

dinne lover of bia kind. The book ia a diilicct addition 
to the Uvea of Cbriit for children. 

FOR YOUNG PEOPLE 
llie Story of Joseph— The Dreamer 

The JrviaTi «Tvntiri-H la,? vhi^ hiH^mt* t-hf. nri*n* Tnfnfatr^ 

Of Ei - ■ 



!gypl Uvea in a very real way in Ihit 

Told in a supposedly autobiographiei 

ntirely new method of treating a Bible 



The Story of David— The Idol of the People 



Like the "Story of Joseph" 
caft in an autobiographical ton — 
Toung people wiU appreciate a 



»i by Google 



NORMAN DUNCAlf A,th»^"DT.Ua»» ^ 

The Measure of a Man 

A Yale of the BJk Woods. lUustrated. net $U5. 

-The Ueunre of • Hid" U Hr. Dancui'* fint fnU-aliBd 
aoTCl haviM \ diitmct motif and parpose lincc "Doctor Ltiln 
of The Labrador," Tbe talc of the bi| wood* liu for iti 
hero, John Fairmeadow — every Inch a man whom the Lumber 
Jaclci of hla pailab in tfac 'pmra looked up to aa tlieir Skr 
FiloL Homan nature in the rough ia here portrajed with a 
faitfafnlnei* that ii convincing. 

ROBERT E. KNOWLES Antlur<ifSt.Cuthf7U,"»u. 

The Singer of the Kootenay 

A Tale of To-day. izmo, doth, net $i.2a 

The scene of action for Ur. Knonlei' lateit nnel ia 1b 
ibt Crow*! NbM Paai of the Kootensr Mnantaina of Britllfa 
Colnmbia. To thia dnmatic field be baa font for local color 
and baa taken gvctt advantan of hia vide knowledce, pic- 
tvrinc life of everr phaae in Ua moat artiatic itjle. 

BAROLD BEGBIE A«IAcrif"Tm>iifB*mMt>," 

The Shadow 

13010, cloth, net $U5- 
A new nory bj Che noreliat wboae atudr of itwtatetm- 
lloa, "TVice-Barn Men" ba* made tbe Teliaiou* world falrlr 
gaap at ita atutting Tevelationi of the Araoat overlooked 

Eoofa of Ihe power of convertion to be found among the 
welt humaDitT. Uii latett work i* > brilliant atudr ol 
modem life which will maintain the ■uthor'a reputation. 
RUPERT HUGHES 

Miss 318 

A Story in Season and out of Seasoa Illustrated, 
ismo, doth, net 7Sc. 

"Surelj nothing haa been left unaaid." "The truA, per- 
hapa." "The truth? — about Chrisimaal Would snyhodr ear* 
to read itr' "PEihapa." "But would Bnjbodv dare to pob- 
liah it?" "Probablf not." "Ihat Bounds iDterestinsI What 
nobody would care to read and nobodr would dare ta pab- 
liah. ought to be well srorth writing." 

/■ J. BELL AvilatBf'Qk! CImstina'" tti. 

The Indiscretions of Maimer Redhom 

Illustrated, idmo, doth, net 6oc. 

The thouaanda who have read mullit MeiVatHt't Urn- 

EwIU need no introduction to this Scottish "penter" aad 
"pint 0' view." The same dry Scottish humor, wio- 
■ini philo9opli7 and hiunan aature fairly overflow tkaaa 



»i by Google 



WILFRED T.GRENFELL, M.D. 

Down North on The Lahrador 

IlhiBtrated, ismo, cloth, net $i.oa 

A nev collection of Labrador yams by ths man wlW 
ba* meeccded in making isolated Labrador a put of tha 
kDOwn world. Like its predectuoi the at-ir valume, while 
ConGned exeluaively to fact* in Dr. Gtenfell'i daily lite, il 
fall of romsnce, adventure and eidtemeni. The N. Y. Sun 
neentlr uid: "Admirjible as >■ the odrk ihat Dr. Grenfcll 
il doing OD the Labrador coait, the book* he haa written, 
Bukc hia reader* almost wish he would give np some o£ it to 

ClARA E. LAUGHLm 

The Gleaners 

A NovellcHe. Illustrated, decorated boards, net 75c 

Aoain Ui» Lsughlin haa riven as a master-slece In 
this Btorr of present dsT life. Sillefs picture, "The Glean- 
■n," is the moving spirit of this little romance and, ind- 
dentsllr, one catches the inspiralion the artist portraTS in 
fais immortal canvas. "The Gleaoet^' is Issoed in 
■Imilar style to "Everybodv 's LonEsome," of which the 
Tornta Globi said: "One of the successful writers of 'Good 
Cheer' stories for old and young I* Miss LauebUa. snd who- 
eyer reads one of her dieery little yolnmes dcsireB more." 

FSOF. EDtVARD A. STEIlfER i^^SllZ'Tui''" m. 

The Broken WaU 

Stories of the Mingling Folk Illustrated, net f I.CO. 

Professor Steiner has the story.teller's knack and nael 
Us art with coniummate skill In this collection, where wiU 
be fouad dtsnatic trsgedy and profound pathos In stronc 
contrast with keen humor and brilliant wit, all pemeataa 

heart of the immigrant more deeply, and his 



A D- STBWART 

Heather and Peat 

lamo, clotb, net $1.20. 

"This is a very delightful atory, told In the broadeit 
and most fascinatiag Scotch tangusge. The author bekmge 
of ri^ to that class of modem Scotch writers who bring 
out natters of vital human interest, with religious and tea. 
del tDDchet, and this story is one that any writer might be 

rud of and any reader of feeling and vitality must delight 
' — Jtumal aHd Utiungtr. 



»i by Google 



ncnON OF WORTH 



NORMAN DUNCAN 



The Best of a Bad Job 

A Hearty Tale of the Sea. Illus, net $1.00 

NoRBU) I>iiiion b u much it borne ■lone the couU ol 
Librmdor ud Newfoundland u Kiplins u in India oT Dtck- 
CD! ni in London. In this, faTi rateil tale of "Pan 

'hidi li the Seipur of the n-nttnt HbA 



The Master of "The Oaks" 

Illustrated, izmo. cloth, net Ji.as. 

Of Mn. Stinley-j Ulerirr work T** San Primdtco 
Cltrvniclr nid: "If il be bigh art to move the reader 
dcepjj, to grip Che heart string! br a slory that ia without 
Mue mannensmi and which deab with onlj real people 
auJ lesitlmatr aituationa, then Caraliae Abbot Stanley ibooM 
nach a high place among atorjr-tetlera of to-dar." 

CLARA S. LAVGHUN 

JThe Penny Philanthropic 

With Frontispiece, lamo. cloth, net $i.oo. 

IWa Btory of "Peggv", the proprietor of the Halrted 
Street. Newa "Imporiuin'' will quicken the beat of irmpa- 
thetlc hearU. '"Others" was her motto, and those who 
Rad the ipatklinic record of her penDy-a-day philanthropy 
will thereafter irreaiatibly tbinh more of others. The Penny 
Fbilanthropin, like the widow with her mile, will enshrine 
herself in the hearts of those wba love the unobtrusive deeda 
of simple kindliness. 

JAMES M. LUDLOW 

Avanti! Guibaldi's Battle Cry 
A Tale of the Resurrection of Sicily— 1860, umo, 
cloth, net $i.2S- 

Tlie author of "ITie CapUin of the Janiiarjei," "Deborah," 
•■Sir Raoul," etc., adds snoiher historical tale to the 
list of bis esrlicT succeues. Sicily, the picturesque id 
the time of Garibaldi, is the scene of this stirring romance. 
A delightful love story runs throughout; but there are other 

Kssions than those of the tenderer iort,~tboBe that come out 
politcal intrigue, in spleadid patriotiam, and in battle nge. 

WINIFRED ARNOLD 

Mis* Bassett's Matrimony Buiean 

Illustrated, izmo, cloth, net $1.00. 

SI, Eiry and Zekle, Cynthy, Elviny and Mirandy with 



i homely phraaeology of "way down Bast" disport th< 
— — the "everlastin" delit"'- "' *'" '-■''" "" 

do It," "where did sIk 

I of advuiEe readers. 



jligbt of the reader. "How 
she get it all" have been tba 



»i by Google 



FICTION WITH A PURPOSE 

RUPERT HUGHES 

Miss 318 and Mr. 37 

IllustTated, : 
UlH ji8 hi 

ho* ahe captured turn m tbt person ot i new Itark fin 
teddie. "Number 3J," Mr. Hughes hai aurpsiMd hinwelf. 
The narrative ia full of the aame characten, humor, depart- 
ment atore Ibgo and vital human inteiest of MISS 318. 
MARY ELIZABETH SMITH 

In Bethany House 

A Story of Social Service. lamo, cloth, net $1.25. 

"Without any plot at all the book would itiU be worth 
reading; with ica earnestnesa, ita acrionsueaa of purpoae, iU 
health oplimiaRi, ita breadth of outlook, and ita armpathetio 
inaight into the deptha of the human heart." — N. Y. Timtt 

MARGARET B. SANGSTER 

Eastover Parish cioth, net $i^. 

A new itory by Margaret Sangaler is ui "eTtnt" among 
■ wide circle of readeri. Mary E. W«!un» place* Mri. 



happened in Mra. SangiCer*! life.'' 

THOMAS D. WHITTLES 

llie Parish of the Hnes 

The Story of Frank Higgins, the Lumber-Jade's 
Sky Pilot Illustrated, lamo, cloth, net $1.00. 

Sormao Duncan, »utbor of "The Measure of a Man, 
c«lla_ thia "Walking; \— -' "■- =' " '"" "- 



10 d the apiej- 



n admirable wc 
the Northweit." The oarT»tive baa the 
neaa of the great pine forest* in which 

AtlNS GILBERT 

The Owl's Nest Oo 

•n%la ia the account of a vacMIoD ■ 
era of aome of the fantaadc cult* a 
met together in ■ oountiy boardins t 
ia certainly interetting." — Miiiiani. 

ISABEL G. and FLORENCE L. BUSH 
Goose Greek Folks A8»j»roittaK«ineiTi««mtrfa« 
lUustrated, rzrao, cloth, net $1.00. 

A story of real life among the niountaineei. of Kentneky. 
II U a word picture of a.piratioQ, aacijfice and honor. Humor 
and pathos mingle with purpose and adventnre ia ■ Tivid 
talc of "thiiwi as they are" in this primitive SoutAcra corn- 



el by GoOgIc 



FICTION WITH A PURPOSE 
AKHM GILBERT 

The Owls* NeA 

A Vacation Among "Isms." i^mo, clotli, net TSc 

EverroDe vho his felt the infltaence through funQy or 

edled religioiu thousfal of the day will wrlconu this trulT 
clever little uoij. In a country boBrdiug hcnue the folloir- 
era of virioas cult* and the eiponents of giicple Christjan 
futh miule in the eveir day life of a summer resort. Ilie 

of the comic and Krioua. Ihe liumo/"nd'k«nne» with 
which the aubjecl is l—"<1-< -ill — ™- -- - ~h~i— n™. .-«- 
dote to "■- -•■-' 

MARY MUZABETH SMITH 

la Bethany House 

A Story of Social Service, tamo, cloth, net $i^ 

Around the atorr of Katherine Giyniie. from faer chQd- 
hood daya on ■ Scnithern plantalion to her choaen work 
amans "The Other Hair' of a large city, the author has built 
a delwhtful romance. Founded upon actual facU in the life 
of a ^Settlement Wbrker," showing the need for the work. 



JUVENILE 
COLTON MAYNARD 

EUiott Gray, Jr. 

A Chronicle of School I,ife at "ArlingtMi.'' lamo, 

Y 

ol the incia< 
actual fact. 



3 doth, net $1.00. 



»i by Google 



by Google 



»i by Google 



»rbv Google 



»i by Google 



»i by Google